Commentary of I Ching Part1

1. Qian / The Creative
2. Kun / The Receptive
3. Zhun / Difficulty at the Beginning
4. Meng / Youthful Folly
5. Xu / Waiting (Nourishment)
6. Song / Conflict
7. Shi / The Army
8. Bi / Holding Together [union]
9. Xiaochu / The Taming Power of the Small
10. Lu / Treading [conduct]
11. Tai / Peace
12. Pi / Standstill [Stagnation]
13. Tongren / Fellowship with Men
14. Da'you / Possession in Great Measure
15. Qian / Modesty
16. Yu / Enthusiasm
17. Sui / Following
18. Gu / Work on what has been spoiled [ Decay ]
19. Lin / Approach
20. Guan / Contemplation (View)
21. Shihe / Biting Through
22. Bi / Grace
23. Bo / Splitting Apart
24. Fu / Return (The Turning Point)
25. Wuwang / Innocence (The Unexpected)
26. Dachu / The Taming Power of the Great
27. Yi / Corners of the Mouth (Providing Nourishment)
28. Daguo / Preponderance of the Great
29. Kan / The Abysmal (Water)
30. Li / The Clinging, Fire


	1. Qian / The Creative


The first hexagram is made up of six unbroken lines. These unbroken lines 
stand for the primal power, which is light-giving, active, strong, and of the 
spirit. The hexagram is consistently strong in character, and since it is 
without weakness, its essence is power or energy. Its image is heaven. Its 
energy is represented as unrestricted by any fixed conditions in space and is 
therefore conceived of as motion. Time is regarded as the basis of this 
motion. Thus the hexagram includes also the power of time and the power 
of persisting in time, that is, duration.
  The power represented by the hexagram is to be interpreted in a dual sense 
in terms of its action on the universe and of its action on the world of men. 
In relation to the universe, the hexagram expresses the strong, creative action 
of the Deity. In relation to the human world, it denotes the creative action of 
the holy man or sage, of the ruler or leader of men, who through his power 
awakens and develops their higher nature.


   THE CREATIVE works sublime success,
   Furthering through perseverance.

According to the original meaning, the attributes [sublimity, potentiality of 
success, power to further, perseverance] are paired. When an individual 
draws this oracle, it means that success will come to him from the primal 
depths of the universe and that everything depends upon his seeking his 
happiness and that of others in one way only, that is, by perseverance in what 
is right.
  The specific meanings of the four attributes became the subject of 
speculation at an early date. The Chinese word here rendered by "sublime" 
means literally "head," "origin," "great." This is why Confucius says in 
explaining it: "Great indeed is the generating power of the Creative; all beings 
owe their beginning to it. This power permeates all heaven." For this 
attribute inheres in the other three as well.
  The beginning of all things lies still in the beyond in the form of ideas that 
have yet to become real. But the Creative furthermore has power to lend 
form to these archetypes of ideas. This is indicated in the word success, and 
the process is represented by an image from nature: "The clouds pass and the 
rain does its work, and all individual beings flow into their forms."
  Applies to the human world, these attributes show the great man the way to 
notable success: "Because he sees with great clarity and cause and effects, he 
completes the six steps at the right time and mounts toward heaven on them 
at the right time, as though on sic dragons." The six steps are the six different 
positions given in the hexagram, which are represented later by the dragon 
symbol. Here it is shown that the way to success lies in apprehending and 
giving actuality to the way of the universe [Tao], which, as a law running 
through end and beginning, brings about all phenomena in time. Thus each 
step attained forthwith becomes a preparation for the next. Time is no longer 
a hindrance but the means of making actual what is potential.
  The act of creation having found expression in the two attributes sublimity 
and success, the work of conservation is shown to be a continuous 
actualization and differentiation of form. This is expressed in the two terms 
"furthering" (literally, "creating that which accords with the nature of a 
given being") and "persevering" (literally, "correct and firm"). "The course of 
the Creative alters and shapes beings until each attains its true, specific 
nature, then it keeps them in conformity with the Great Harmony. Thus 
does it show itself to further through perseverance."
  In relation to the human sphere, this shows how the great man brings peace 
and security to the world through his activity in creating order: "He towers 
high above the multitude of beings, and all lands are united in peace."
  Another line of speculation goes still further in separating the words 
"sublime," "success," "furthering," "perseverance," and parallels them with 
the four cardinal virtues in humanity. To sublimity, which, as the 
fundamental principle, embraces all the other attributes, it links love. To the 
attribute success are linked the morals, which regulate and organize 
expressions of love and thereby make them successful. The attribute 
furthering is correlated with justice, which creates the conditions in which 
each receives that which accords with his being, that which is due him and 
which constitutes his happiness. The attribute perseverance is correlated 
with wisdom, which discerns the immutable laws of all that happens and can 
therefore bring about enduring conditions. These speculations, already 
broached in the commentary called Wên Yen , later formed the bridge 
connecting the philosophy of the "five stages (elements) of change," as laid 
down in the Book of History (Shu Ching) with the philosophy of the Book of 
Changes, which is based solely on the polarity of positive and negative 
principles. In the course of time this combination of the two systems of 
thought opened the way for an increasingly intricate number symbolism.


 	The movement of heaven is full of power. 
	Thus the superior man makes himself strong and 

Since there is only one heaven, the doubling of the trigram Ch'ien, of which 
heaven is the image, indicates the movement of heaven. One complete 
revolution of heaven makes a day, and the repetition of the trigram means 
that each day is followed by another. This creates the idea of time. Since it is 
the same heaven moving with untiring power, there is also created the idea 
of duration both in and beyond time, a movement that never stops nor 
slackens, just as one day follows another in an unending course. This 
duration in time is the image of the power inherent in the Creative. 
  With this image as a model, the sage learns how best to develop himself so 
that his influence may endure. He must make himself strong in every way, 
by consciously casting out all that is inferior and degrading. Thus he attains 
that tirelessness which depends upon consciously limiting the fields of his 


	Nine at the beginning means:
	Hidden dragon. Do not act.

In China the dragon has a meaning altogether different from that given it in 
the Western world. The dragon is a symbol of the electrically charged, 
dynamic, arousing force that manifests itself in the thunderstorm. In winter 
this energy withdraws into the earth; in the early summer it becomes active 
again, appearing in the sky as thunder and lightning. As a result the creative 
forces on earth begin to stir again.
  Here this creative force is still hidden beneath the earth and therefore has 
no effect. In terms of human affairs, this symbolizes a great man who is still 
unrecognized. Nonetheless he remains true to himself. He does not allow 
himself to be influenced by outward success or failure, but confident in his 
strength, he bides his time. Hence it is wise for the man who consults the 
oracle and draws this line to wait in the calm strength of patience. The time 
will fulfill itself.  One need not fear least strong will should not prevail; the 
main thing is not to expend one's powers prematurely in an attempt to obtain 
by force something for which the time is not yet ripe.

	Nine in the second place means:
	Dragon appearing in the field.
	It furthers one to see the great man.

Here the effects of the light-giving power begin to manifest themselves. In 
terms of human affairs, this means that the great man makes his appearance 
in his chosen field of activity. As yet he has no commanding position but is 
still with his peers. However, what distinguishes him form the others is his 
seriousness of purpose, his unqualified reliability, and the influence he exerts 
on his environment with out conscious effort. Such a man is destined to 
gain great influence and to set the world in order. Therefore it is favorable to 
see him.

	Nine in the third place means:
	All day long the superior man is creatively active.
	At nightfall his mind is still beset with cares.
	Danger. No blame.

A sphere of influence opens up for the great man. His fame begins to spread. 
The masses flock to him. His inner power is adequate to the increased outer 
activity. There are all sorts of things to be done, and when others are at rest in 
the evening, plans and anxieties press in upon him. But danger lurks here at 
the place of transition from lowliness to the heights. Many a great man has 
been ruined because the masses flocked to him and swept him into their 
course. Ambition has destroyed his integrity. However, true greatness is not 
impaired by temptations. He who remains in touch with the time that is 
dawning, and with its demands is prudent enough to avoid all pitfalls, and 
remains blameless.

	Nine in the fourth place means:
	Wavering flight over the depths.
	No blame.

A place of transition has been reached, and free choice can enter in. A 
twofold possibility is presented to the great man: he can soar to the heights 
and play an important part in the world, or he can withdraw into solitude 
and develop himself. He can go the way of the hero or that of the holy sage 
who seeks seclusion. There is no general law of his being. If the individual 
acts consistently and is true to himself, he will find the way that is appropriate 
for him. This way is right for him and without blame.

	°Nine in the fifth place means:
	Flying dragon in the heavens.
	It furthers one to see the great man.

Here the great man has attained the sphere of the heavenly beings. His 
influence spreads and becomes visible throughout the whole world. 
Everyone who sees him may count himself blessed. Confucius says about this 

Things that accord in tone vibrate together. Things that have affinity in their 
inmost natures seek one another. Water flows to what is wet, fire turns to 
what is dry. Clouds (the breath of heaven) follow the dragon, wind (the breath 
of earth) follows the tiger. Thus the sage arises, and all creatures follow him 
with their eyes. What is born of heaven feels related to what is above. What 
is born of earth feels related to what is below. Each follows its kind.

	Nine at the top means:
	Arrogant dragon will have cause to repent.

When a man seeks to climb so high that he loses touch with the rest of 
mankind, he becomes isolated, and this necessarily leads to failure. This line 
warns against titanic aspirations that exceed one's power. A precipitous fall 
would follow. 

	When all the lines are nines, it means:

	There appears a flight of dragons without heads.
	Good fortune.

When all the lines are nines, it means that the whole hexagram is in motion 
and changes into the hexagram K'un, THE RECEPTIVE, whose character is 
devotion. The strength of the Creative and the mildness of the Receptive 
unite. Strength is indicated by the flight of dragons, mildness by the fact that 
their heads are hidden. This means that mildness in action joined to strength 
of decision brings good fortune.

	2. Kun / The Receptive


This hexagram is made up of broken lines only. The broken lines represents 
the dark, yielding, receptive primal power of yin. The attribute of the 
hexagram is devotion; its image is the earth.  It is the perfect complement of 
THE CREATIVE--the complement, not the opposite, for the Receptive does 
not combat the Creative but completes it . It represents nature in contrast to 
spirit, earth in contrast to heaven, space as against time, the female-maternal 
as against the male-paternal. However, as applied to human affairs, the 
principle of this complementary relationship is found not only in the relation 
between man and woman, but also in that between prince and minister and 
between father and son. Indeed, even in the individual this duality appears 
in the coexistence of the spiritual world and the world of the senses.
  But strictly speaking there is no real dualism here, because there is a clearly 
defined hierarchic relationship between the two principles. In itself of course 
the Receptive is just as important as the Creative, but the attribute of 
devotion defines the place occupied by this primal power in relation to the 
Creative. For the Receptive must be activated and led by the Creative; then it 
is productive of good. Only when it abandons this position and tries to stand 
as an equal side by side with the Creative, does it become evil.  The result 
then is opposition to and struggle against the Creative, which is productive of 
evil to both.


	THE RECEPTIVE brings about sublime success,
	Furthering through the perseverance of a mare.
	If the superior man undertakes something and tries to lead,
	He goes astray;
	But if he follows, he finds guidance.
	It is favorable to find friends in the west and south,
	To forego friends in the east and north.
	Quiet perseverance brings good fortune.

The four fundamental aspects of the Creative--"sublime success, furthering 
through perseverance"--are also attributed to the Receptive.  Here, however, 
the perseverance is more closely defined: it is that of a mare. The Receptive 
connotes spatial reality in contrast to the spiritual potentiality of the Creative. 
The potential becomes real and the spiritual becomes spatial through a 
specifically qualifying definition. Thus the qualification, "of a mare," is here 
added to the idea of perseverance. The horse belongs to earth just as the 
dragon belongs to heaven. Its tireless roaming over the plains is taken as a 
symbol of the vast expanse of the earth. This is the symbol chosen because 
the mare combines the strength and swiftness of the horse with the 
gentleness and devotion of the cow.
  Only because nature in its myriad forms corresponds with the myriad 
impulses of the Creative can it make these impulses real. Nature's richness 
lies in its power to nourish all living things; its greatness lies in its power to 
give then beauty and splendor. Thus it prospers all that lives. IT is the 
Creative that begets things, but they are brought to birth by the Receptive. 
Applied to human affairs, therefore, what the hexagram indicated is action in 
conformity with the situation. The person in questions not in an 
independent position, but is acting as an assistant. This means that he must 
achieve something. It is not his task to try to lead--that would only make him 
lose the way-but to let himself be led. If he knows how to meet fate with an 
attitude of acceptance, he is sure to find the right guidance. The superior man 
lets himself be guided; he does not go ahead blindly, but learns from the 
situation what is demanded of him and then follows this intimation from 
  Since there is something to be accomplished, we need friends and helpers in 
the hour of toil and effort, once the ideas to be realized are firmly set. The 
time of toil and effort is indicated by the west and south, for west and south 
symbolize the place where the Receptive works for the Creative, as nature 
does in summer and autumn. If in that situation one does not mobilize all 
one's powers, the work to be accomplished will not be done. Hence to find 
friends there means to find guidance. But in addition to the time of toil and 
effort, there is also a time of planning, and for this we need this solitude. The 
east symbolized the place where a man receives orders from his master, and 
the north the place where he reports on what he has done. At that time he 
must be alone and objective. In this sacred hour he must do without 
companions. So that the purity of the moment may not be spoiled by fictional 
hates and favoritism.


	The earth's condition is receptive devotion.
	Thus the superior man who has breadth of character
	Carries the outer world.

Just as there is only one heaven, so too there is only one earth. In the 
hexagram of heaven the doubling of the trigram implies duration in time, 
but in the hexagram of earth the doubling connotes the solidity and extension 
in space by virtue of which the earth is able to carry and preserve all things 
that live and move upon it. The earth in its devotion carries all things, good 
and evil,, without exception. In the same way the superior man gives to his 
character breadth, purity, and sustaining power, so that he is able both to 
support and to bear with people and things.


	Six at the beginning means:
	When there is hoarfrost underfoot,
	Solid ice is not far off.

Just as the light-giving power represents life, so the dark power, the shadowy, 
represents death. When the first hoarfrost comes in the autumn, the power 
of darkness and cold is just at its beginning. After these first warnings, signs 
of death will gradually multiply, until, in obedience to immutable laws, stark 
winter with its ice is here.
  In life it is the same. After certain scarcely noticeable signs of decay have 
appeared, they go on increasing until final dissolution comes. But in life 
precautions can be taken by heeding the first signs of decay and checking them 
in time.

	°Six in the second place means:
	Straight, square, great.
	Without purpose,
	Yet nothing remains unfurthered.

The symbol of heaven is the circle, and that of earth is the square. Thus 
squareness is a primary quality of the earth. On the other hand, movement 
in a straight line, as well as magnitude, is a primary quality of the Creative. 
But all square things have their origin in a straight line and into turn form 
solid bodies. In mathematics, when we discriminate between lines, planes 
and solids, we find that rectangular planes result from straight lines, and 
cubic magnitudes from rectangular planes. The Receptive accommodates 
itself to the qualities of the Creative and makes them its own. Thus a square 
develops out of a straight line and a cube out of a square. This is compliance 
with the laws of the Creative; nothing is taken away, nothing added. 
Therefore the Receptive has no need of a special purpose of its own, nor of 
any effort' yet everything turns out as it should.
  Nature creates all beings without erring: this is its foursquareness. It 
tolerates all creatures equally: this is its greatness. Therefore it attains what is 
right for all without artifice or special intentions. Man achieves the height of 
wisdom when all that he does is as self-evident as what nature does.

	Six in the third place means:
	Hidden lines.
	One is able to remain persevering.
	If by chance you are in the service of a king,
	Seek not works, but bring to completion.

If a man is free of vanity he is able to conceal his abilities and keep them from 
attracting attention too soon; thus he can mature undisturbed.  If conditions 
demand it, he can also enter public life, but that too he does with restraint. 
The wise man gladly leaves fame to others. He does not seek to have credited 
to himself things that stand accomplished, but hopes to release active forces; 
that is, he completes his works in such a manner that they may bear fruit for 
the future.

	Six in the fourth place means:
	A tied-up sack. No blame, no praise.

The dark element opens when it moves and closes when at rest. The strictest 
reticence is indicated here. The time is dangerous , because any degree of 
prominence leads either to the enmity of irresistible antagonists if one 
challenges them or to misconceived recognition if one is complaisant. 
Therefore a man ought to maintain reserve, be it in solitude or in the turmoil 
of the world, for there too he can hide himself so well that no one knows 

	Six in the fifth place means:
	A yellow lower garment brings supreme good fortune.

Yellow is the color of the earth and of the middle; it is the symbol of that 
which is reliable and genuine. The lower garment is inconspicuously 
decorated--the symbol of aristocratic reserve. When anyone is called upon to 
work in a prominent but not independent position, true success depends on 
the utmost discretion. A man's genuineness and refinement should not 
reveal themselves directly; they should express themselves only indirectly as 
an effect from within.

	Six at the top means:
	Dragons fight in the meadow.
	Their blood is black and yellow.

In the top place the dark element should yield to the light. If it attempts to 
maintain a position to which it is not entitled and to rule instead of serving, 
it draws down upon itself the anger of the strong. A struggle ensues in which 
it is overthrown, with injury, however, to both sides. The dragon, symbol of 
heaven, comes to fight the false dragon that symbolized the inflation of the 
earth principle. Midnight blue is the color of heaven; yellow is the color of 
earth. Therefore, when black and yellow blood flow, it is a sign that in this 
unnatural contest both primal powers suffer injury.
	When all the lines are sixes, it means:
	Lasting perseverance furthers.

When nothing but sixes appears, the hexagram of THE RECEPTIVE changes 
into the hexagram of THE CREATIVE. By holding fast to what is right, it 
gains the power of enduring. There is indeed no advance, but neither is there 

	3. Zhun / Difficulty at the Beginning


The name of the hexagram, Chun, really connotes a blade of grass pushing 
against an obstacle as it sprouts out of the earth--hence the meaning, 
"difficulty at the beginning." The hexagram indicates the way in which 
heaven and earth bring forth individual beings. It is their first meeting, 
which is beset with difficulties. The lower trigram Chên is the Arousing; its 
motion is upward and its image is thunder. The upper trigram K'an stands 
for the Abysmal, the dangerous. Its motion is downward and its image is 
rain. The situation points to teeming, chaotic profusion; thunder and rain fill 
the air. But the chaos clears up. While the Abysmal sinks, the upward 
movement eventually passes beyond the danger. A thunderstorm brings 
release from tension, and all things breathe freely again.


	DIFFICULTY AT THE BEGINNING works supreme success,
	Furthering through perseverance.
	Nothing should be undertaken.
	It furthers one to appoint helpers.

Times of growth are beset with difficulties. They resemble a first birth. But 
these difficulties arise from the very profusion of all that is struggling to 
attain form . Everything is in motion: therefore if one perseveres there is a 
prospect of great success, in spite of the existing danger. When it is a man's 
fate to undertake such new beginnings, everything is still unformed, dark. 
Hence he must hold back, because any premature move might bring disaster. 
Likewise, it is very important not to remain alone; in order to overcome the 
chaos he needs helpers. This is not to say, however, that he himself should 
look on passively at what is happening. He must lend his hand and 
participate with inspiration and guidance.


	Clouds and thunder:
	Thus the superior man
	Brings order out of confusion.

Clouds and thunder are represented by definite decorative lines; this means 
that in the chaos of difficulty at the beginning, order is already implicit. So 
too the superior man has to arrange and organize the inchoate profusion of 
such times of beginning, just as one sorts out silk threads from a knotted 
tangle and binds them into skeins. In order to find one's place in the infinity 
of being, one must be able both to separate and to unite.


	°Nine at the beginning means:
	Hesitation and hindrance.
	It furthers one to remain persevering.
	It furthers one to appoint helpers.

If a person encounters a hindrance at the beginning of an enterprise, he must 
not try to force advance but must pause and take thought. However, nothing 
should put him off his course; he must persevere and constantly keep the 
goal in sight. It is important to seek out the right assistants, but he can find 
them only if he avoids arrogance and associated with his fellows in a spirit of 
humility. Only then will he attract those with whose help he can combat the 

	Six in the second place means:
	Difficulties pile up.
	Horse and wagon part.
	He is not a robber;
	He wants to woo when the time comes.
	The maiden is chaste,
	She does not pledge herself.
	Ten years--then she pledges herself.

We find ourselves beset by difficulties and hindrances. Suddenly there is a 
turn of affairs, as if someone were coming up with a horse and wagon and 
unhitching them. This event comes so unexpectedly that we assume the 
newcomer to be a robber. Gradually it becomes clear that he has no evil 
intentions but seeks to be friendly and to offer help. But this offer is not to be 
accepted, because it does not come from the right quarter. We must wait until 
the time is fulfilled; ten years is a fulfilled cycle of time. Then normal 
conditions return of themselves, and we can join forces with the friend 
intended for us.
  Using the image of a betrothed girl who remains true to her lover in face of 
grave conflicts, the hexagram gives counsel for a special situation. When in 
times of difficulty a hindrance is encountered and unexpected relief is offered 
from a source unrelated to us, we must be careful and not take upon 
ourselves any obligations entailed by such help; otherwise our freedom of 
decision is impaired. If we bide our time, things will quiet down again, and 
we shall attain what we have hoped for.

	Six in the third place means:
	Whoever hunts deer without the forester
	Only loses his way in the forest.
	The superior man understands the signs of the time
	And prefers to desist.
	To go on brings humiliation.

If a man tries to hunt in a strange forest and has no guide, he loses his way. 
When he finds himself in difficulties he must not try to steal out of them 
unthinkingly and without guidance. Fate cannot be duped; premature effort, 
without the necessary guidance, ends in failure and disgrace.  Therefore the 
superior man, discerning the seeds of coming events, prefers to renounce a 
wish rather than to provoke failure and humiliation by trying to force its 
	Six in the fourth place means:
	Horse and wagon part.
	Strive for union.
	To go brings good fortune.
	Everything acts to further.

We are in a situation in which it is our duty to act, but we lack sufficient 
power. However, an opportunity to make connections offers itself. It must be 
seized. Neither false pride nor false reserve should deter us. Bringing oneself 
to take the first step, even when it involves a certain degree of self-
abnegation, is a sign of inner clarity. To accept help in a difficult situation is 
not a disgrace. If the right helper is found, all goes well.

	° Nine in the fifth place means:
	Difficulties in blessing.
	A little perseverance brings good fortune.
	Great perseverance brings misfortune.

An individual is in a position in which he cannot so express his good 
intentions that they will actually take shape and be understood. Other people 
interpose and distort everything he does. He should then be cautious and 
proceed step by step. He must not try to force the consummation of a great 
undertaking, because success is possible only when general confidence already 
prevails. It is only through faithful and conscientious work, unobtrusively 
carried on, that the situation gradually clears up and the hindrance 

	Six at the top means:
	Horse and wagon part.
	Bloody tears flow.

The difficulties at the beginning are too great for some persons. They get 
stuck and never find their way out; they fold their hands and give up the 
struggle. Such resignation is the saddest of all things. Therefore Confucius 
says of this line: "Bloody tears flow: one should not persist in this."

	4. Meng / Youthful Folly


In this hexagram we are reminded of youth and folly in two different ways. 
The image of the upper trigram, Kên, is the mountain, that of the lower, 
K'an, is water; the spring rising at the foot of the mountain is the image of 
inexperienced youth. Keeping still is the attribute of the upper trigram; that of 
the lower is the abyss, danger. Stopping in perplexity on the brink of a 
dangerous abyss is a symbol of the folly of youth. However, the two trigrams 
also show the way of overcoming the follies of youth. Water is something 
that of necessity flows on. When the spring gushes forth, it does not know at 
first where it will go. But its steady flow fills up the deep place blocking its 
progress, and success is attained.


	YOUTHFUL FOLLY has success.
	It is not I who seek the young fool;
	The young fool seeks me.
	At the first oracle I inform him. 
	If he asks two or three times, it is importunity.
	If he importunes, I give him no information.
	Perseverance furthers.

In the time of youth, folly is not an evil. One may succeed in spite of it, 
provided one finds an experienced teacher and has the right attitude toward 
him. This means, first of all, that the youth himself must be conscious of his 
lack of experience and must seek out the teacher. Without this modesty and 
this interest there is no guarantee that he has the necessary receptivity, which 
should express itself in respectful acceptance of the teacher. This is the reason 
why the teacher must wait to be sought out instead of offering himself. Only 
thus can the instruction take place at the right time and in the right way.
  A teacher's answer to the question of a pupil ought to be clear and definite 
like that expected from an oracle; thereupon it ought to be accepted as a key 
for resolution of doubts and a basis for decision. If mistrustful or 
unintelligent questioning is kept up, it serves only to annoy the teacher. He 
does well to ignore it in silence, just as the oracle gives one answer only and 
refuses to be tempted by questions implying doubt.
  Given addition a perseverance that never slackens until the points are 
mastered one by one, real success is sure to follow. Thus the hexagram 
counsels the teacher as well as the pupil.


	A spring wells up at the foot of the mountain:
	The image of YOUTH.
	Thus the superior man fosters his character
	By thoroughness in all that he does.

A spring succeeds in flowing on and escapes stagnation by filling up all the 
hollow places in its path. In the same way character is developed by 
thoroughness that skips nothing but, like water, gradually and steadily fills up 
all gaps and so flows onward.


	Six at the beginning means:
	To make a fool develop
	It furthers one to apply discipline.
	The fetters should be removed.
	To go on in this way bring humiliation.

Law is the beginning of education. Youth in its inexperience is inclined at first 
to take everything carelessly and playfully.  It must be shown the seriousness 
of life. A certain measure of taking oneself in hand, brought about by strict 
discipline, is a good thing. He who plays with life never amounts to 
anything. However, discipline should not degenerate into drill. Continuous 
drill has a humiliating effect and cripples a man's powers.

	° Nine in the second place means:
	To bear with fools in kindliness brings good fortune.
	To know how to take women
	Brings good fortune.
	The son is capable of taking charge of the household.

These lines picture a man who has no external power, but who has enough 
strength of mind to bear his burden of responsibility. He has the inner 
superiority and that enable him to tolerate with kindliness the shortcomings 
of human folly. The same attitude is owed to women as the weaker sex. One 
must understand them and give them recognition in a spirit of chivalrous 
consideration. Only this combination of inner strength with outer reserve 
enables one to take on the responsibility of directing a larger social body with 
real success.

	Six in the third place means:
	Take not a maiden who. When she sees a man of bronze,
	Loses possession of herself.
	Nothing furthers.

A weak, inexperienced man, struggling to rise, easily loses his own 
individuality when he slavishly imitates a strong personality of higher 
station. He is like a girl throwing herself away when she meets a strong man. 
Such a servile approach should not be encouraged, because it is bad both for 
the youth and the teacher. A girl owes it to her dignity to wait until she is 
wooed. In both cases it is undignified to offer oneself, and no good comes of 
accepting such an offer.

	Six in the fourth place means:
	Entangled folly bring humiliation.
For youthful folly it is the most hopeless thing to entangle itself in empty 
imaginings. The more obstinately it clings to such unreal fantasies, the more 
certainly will humiliation overtake it.
 Often the teacher, when confronted with such entangled folly, has no other 
course but to leave the fool to himself for a time, not sparing him the 
humiliation that results. This is frequently the only means of rescue.

	° Six in the fifth place means:
	Childlike folly brings good fortune. 

An inexperienced person who seeks instruction in a childlike and 
unassuming way is on the right path, for the man devoid of arrogance who 
subordinated himself to his teacher will certainly be helped.

	Nine at the top means:
	In punishing folly
	It does not further one
	To commit transgressions.
	The only thing that furthers 
	Is to prevent transgressions.

Sometimes an incorrigible fool must be punished. He who will not heed will 
be made to feel. This punishment is quite different from a preliminary 
shaking up. But the penalty should not be imposed in anger; it must be 
restricted to an objective guarding against unjustified excesses. Punishment 
is never an end in itself but serves merely to restore order.
  This applies not only in regard to education but also in regard to the 
measures taken by a government against a populace guilty of transgressions. 
Governmental interference should always be merely preventive and should 
have as its sole aim the establishment of public security and peace. 

	5. Xu / Waiting (Nourishment)


All beings have need of nourishment from above. But the gift of food comes 
in its own time, and for this one must wait. This hexagram shows the clouds 
in the heavens, giving rain to refresh all that grows and to provide mankind 
with food and drink. The rain will come in its own time. We cannot make it 
come; we have to wait for it. The idea of waiting is further suggested by the 
attributes of the two trigrams--strength within, danger in from. Strength in 
the face of danger does not plunge ahead but bides its time, whereas weakness 
in the face of danger grows agitated and has not the patience to wait.


	WAITING. If you are sincere, 
	You have light and success.
	Perseverance brings good fortune.
	It furthers one to cross the great water.

Waiting is not mere empty hoping. It has the inner certainty of reaching the 
goal. Such certainty alone gives that light which leads to success. This leads 
to the perseverance that brings good fortune and bestows power to cross the 
great water. One is faced with a danger that has to be overcome. Weakness 
and impatience can do nothing. Only a strong man can stand up to his fate, 
for his inner security enables him to endure to the end. This strength shows 
itself in uncompromising truthfulness [with himself]. It is only when we 
have the courage to face things exactly as they are, without any sort of self-
deception or illusion, that a light will develop out of events, by which the 
path to success may be recognized. This recognition must be followed by 
resolute and persevering action. For only the man who goes to meet his fate 
resolutely is equipped to deal with it adequately. Then he will be able to cross 
the great water--that is to say, he will be capable of making the necessary 
decision and of surmounting the danger.


	Clouds rise up to heaven:
	The image of WAITING.
	Thus the superior man eats and drinks,
	Is joyous and of good cheer. 

When clouds rise in the sky, it is a sign that it will rain. There is nothing to 
do but to wait until after the rain falls. It is the same in life when destiny is at 
work. We should not worry and seek to shape the future by interfering in 
things before the time is ripe. We should quietly fortify the body with food 
and drink and the mind with gladness and good cheer. Fate comes when it 
will, and thus we are ready.


	Nine at the beginning means:
	Waiting in the meadow.
	IT furthers one to abide in what endures.
	No blame.

The danger is not yet close. One is still waiting on the open plain. 
Conditions are still simple, yet there is a feeling of something impending. 
One must continue to lead a regular life as long as possible. Only in this way 
does one guard against a premature waste of strength, keep free of blame and 
error that would become a source of weakness later on.

	Nine in the second place means:
	Waiting on the sand.
	There is some gossip.
	The end brings good fortune.

The danger gradually comes closer. Sand is near the bank of the river, and 
the water means danger. Disagreements crop up. General unrest can easily 
develop in such times, and we lay the blame on one another. He who stays 
calm will succeed in making things go well in the end. Slander will be 
silenced if we do not gratify it with injured retorts.

	Nine in the third place means:
	Waiting in the mud
	Brings about the arrival of the enemy.

Mud is no place for waiting, since it is already being washed by the water of 
the stream. Instead of having gathered strength to cross the stream at one try, 
one has made a premature start that has got him no farther than the muddy 
bank. Such an unfavorable position invites enemies from without, who 
naturally take advantage of it. Caution and a sense of the seriousness of the 
situation are all that can keep one from injury.

	Six in the fourth place means:
	Waiting in blood.
	Get out of the pit.

The situation is extremely dangerous. IT is of utmost gravity now--a matter 
of life and death. Bloodshed seems imminent. There is no going forward or 
backward; we are cut off as if in a pit. Now we must simply stand fast and let 
fate take its course. This composure, which keeps us from aggravating the 
trouble by anything we might do, is the only way of getting out of the 
dangerous pit.

	° Nine in the fifth place means:
	Waiting at meat and drink.
	Perseverance brings good fortune.

Even in the midst of danger there come intervals of peace when things go 
relatively well. If we possess enough inner strength, we shall take advantage 
of these intervals to fortify ourselves for renewed struggle. We must know 
how to enjoy the moment without being deflected from the goal, for 
perseverance is needed to remain victorious.
  This is true in public life as well; it is not possible to achieve everything all 
at once. The height of wisdom is to allow people enough recreation to 
quicken pleasure in their work until the task is completed. Herein lies the 
secret of the whole hexagram. It differs from Chin OBSTRUCTION (39), in 
the fact that in this instance, while waiting, we are sure of our cause and 
therefore do not lose the serenity born of inner cheerfulness.

	Six at the top means:
	One falls into the pit.
	Three uninvited guests arrive.
	Honor them, and in the end there will be good fortune.
The waiting is over; the danger can no longer be averted.  One falls into the 
pit and must yield to the inevitable. Everything seems to have been in vain. 
But precisely in this extremity things take an unforeseen turn.  Without a 
move on one's own part, there is outside intervention. At first one cannot be 
sure of its meaning: is it rescue or is it destruction? A person in this 
situation must keep his mind alert and not withdraw into himself with a 
sulky gesture of refusal, but must greet the new turn with respect. Thus he 
ultimately escapes the danger, and all goes well. Even happy turns of fortune 
often come in a form that at first seems strange to us.

	6. Song / Conflict


The upper trigram, whose image is heaven, has an upward movement; the 
lower trigram, water, in accordance with its nature tends downward. Thus the 
two halves move away from each other, giving rise to the idea of conflict.
  The attribute of the Creative is strength, that of the Abysmal is danger, guile. 
Where cunning has force before it, there is conflict.
  A third indication of conflict, in terms of character, is presented by the 
combination of deep cunning within and fixed determination outwardly. A 
person of this character will certainly be quarrelsome.


	CONFLICT. You are sincere
	And are being obstructed.
	A cautious halt halfway brings good fortune.
	Going through to the end brings misfortune.
	It furthers one to see the great man.
	It does not further one to cross the great water.

Conflict develops when one feels himself to be in the right and runs into 
opposition. If one is not convinced of being in the right, opposition leads to 
craftiness or high-handed encroachment but not to open conflict.
  If a man is entangled in a conflict, his only salvation lies in being so clear-
headed and inwardly strong that he is always ready to come to terms by 
meeting the opponent halfway. To carry one the conflict to the bitter end has 
evil effects even when one is the right, because the enmity is then 
perpetuated. It is important to see the great man, that is, an impartial man 
whose authority is great enough to terminate the conflict amicably or assure a 
just decision. In times of strife, crossing the great water is to be avoided, that 
is, dangerous enterprises are not to be begun, because in order to be successful 
they require concerted unity of focus. Conflict within weakens the power to 
conquer danger without.


	Heaven and water go their opposite ways:
	The image of CONFLICT.
	Thus in all his transactions the superior man
	Carefully considers the beginning.

The image indicates that the causes of conflict are latent in the opposing 
tendencies of the two trig rams. Once these opposing tendencies appear, 
conflict is inevitable. To avoid it, therefore, everything must be taken 
carefully into consideration in the very beginning. If rights and duties are 
exactly defined, or if, in a group, the spiritual trends of the individuals 
harmonize, the cause of conflict is removed in advance.


	Six at the beginning means:
	If one does not perpetuate the affair,
	There is a little gossip.
	In the end, good fortune comes.

While a conflict is in the incipient stage, the best thing To do is to drop the 
issue. Especially when the adversary is stronger, it is not advisable to risk 
pushing the conflict to a decision. It may come to a slight dispute, but in the 
end all goes well.

	Nine in the second place means:
	One cannot engage in conflict;
	One returns home, gives way.
	The people of his town,
	Three hundred households, 
	Remain free of guilt.

In a struggle with an enemy of superior strength, retreat is no disgrace. 
Timely withdrawal prevents bad consequences. If, out of a false sense of 
honor, a man allowed himself to be tempted into an unequal conflict, he 
would be drawing down disaster upon himself. In such a case a wise and 
conciliatory attitude benefits the whole community, which will then not be 
drawn into the conflict.
	Six in the third place means:
	To nourish oneself on ancient virtue induces perseverance.
	Danger. In the end, good fortune comes.
	If by chance you are in the service of a king,
	Seek not works.

This is a warning of the danger that goes with an expansive disposition. Only 
that which has been honestly acquired through merit remains a permanent 
possession. It can happen that such a possession may be contested, but since it 
is really one's own, one cannot be robbed of it. Whatever a man possesses 
through the strength of his own nature cannot be lost. If one enters the 
service of a superior, one can avoid conflict only by not seeking works for the 
sake of prestige. It is enough if the work is done: let the honor go to the 

	Nine in the fourth place means:
	One cannot engage in conflict.
	One turns back and submits to fate,
	Changes one's attitude, 
	And finds peace in perseverance.
	Good fortune.

This refers to a person whose inner attitude at first lacks peace. He does not 
feel content with his situation and would like to improve it through conflict. 
In contrast tot the situation of the nine in the second place, he is dealing with 
a weaker opponent and might therefore succeed. But he cannot carry on the 
fight, because, since right is not on his side, he cannot justify the conflict to 
his conscience. Therefore he turns back and accepts his fate. He changes his 
mind and finds lasting peace in being at one with eternal law. This brings 
good fortune.

	° Nine in the fifth place means:
	To contend before him
	Brings supreme good fortune.

This refers to an arbiter in a conflict who is powerful and just, and strong 
enough to lend weight to the right side. A dispute can be turned over to him 
with confidence. If one is in the right, one attains great good fortune.
	Nine at the top means:
	Even if by chance a leather belt is bestowed on one,'
	By the end of a morning
	It will have been snatched away three times.

Here we have someone who has carried a conflict to the bitter end and has 
triumphed. He is granted a decoration, but his happiness does not last.  He is 
attacked again and again, and the result is conflict without end.

	7. Shi / The Army


This hexagram is made up of the trigrams K'an, water, and K'un, earth, and 
thus it symbolizes the ground water stored up in the earth. In the same way 
military strength is stored up in the mass of the people--invisible in times of 
peace but always ready for use as a source of power. The attributes of the two 
trig rams are danger inside and obedience must prevail outside.
  Of the individual lines, the one that controls the hexagram is the strong 
nine in the second place, to which the other lines, all yielding, are 
subordinate. This line indicates a commander, because it stands in the 
middle of one of the two trigrams. But since it is in the lower rather than the 
upper trigram, it represents not the ruler but the efficient general, who 
maintains obedience in the army by his authority.


	THE ARMY. The army needs perseverance
	And a strong man.
	Good fortune without blame.

An army is a mass that needs organization in order to become a fighting force.  
Without strict discipline nothing can be accomplished, but this discipline 
must not be achieved by force. It requires a strong man who captures the 
hearts of the people and awakens their enthusiasm. In order that he may 
develop his abilities he needs the complete confidence of his ruler, who must 
entrust him with full responsibility as long as the war lasts. But war is always 
a dangerous thing and brings with it destruction and devastation. Therefore 
it should not be resorted to rashly but, like a poisonous drug, should be used 
as a last recourse.


	In the middle of the earth is water:
	The image of THE ARMY.
	Thus the superior man increases his masses
	By generosity toward the people.

Ground water is invisibly present within the earth. In the same way the 
military power of a people is invisibly present in the masses. When danger 
threatens, every peasant becomes present in the masses. When danger 
threatens, every peasant becomes a soldier; when the war ends, he goes back 
to his plow. He who is generous toward the people wins their love, and a 
people living under a mild rule becomes strong and powerful. Only a people 
economically strong can be important in military power. Such power must 
therefore be cultivated by improving the economic condition of the people 
and by humane government. Only when there is this invisible bond between 
government and people, so that the people are sheltered by their 
government as ground water is sheltered by the earth, is it possible to wage a 
victorious war.


	Six at the beginning means:
	An army must set forth in proper order.
	If the order is not good, misfortune threatens.

At the beginning of a military enterprise, order is imperative. A just and 
valid cause must exist, and the obedience and coordination of the troops must 
be well organized, otherwise the result is inevitably failure.

	° Nine in the second place means:
	In the midst of the army.
	Good fortune. No blame.
	The king bestows a triple decoration.

The leader should be in the midst of his army, in touch with it, sharing good 
and bad with the masses he leads. This alone makes him equal to the heavy 
demands made upon him. He needs also the recognition of the ruler. The 
decorations he receives are justified, because there is no question of personal 
preferment here: the whole army, whose center he is, is honored in his 

	Six in the third place means:
	Perchance the army carries corpses in the wagon.

Here we have a choice of two explanations. One points to defeat because 
someone other than the chosen leader interferes with the command; the 
other is similar in its general meaning, but the expression, "carries corpses in 
the wagon," is interpreted differently. At burials and at sacrifices to the dead it 
was customary in China for the deceased to whom the sacrifice was made to 
be represented by a boy of the family, who sat in the dead man's place and was 
honored as his representative. On the basis of this custom the text is 
interpreted as meaning that a "corpse boy" is sitting in the wagon, or, in 
other words, that authority is not being exercised by the proper leaders but has 
been usurped by others. Perhaps the whole difficulty clears up if it is inferred 
that there has been an error in copying. The character fan, meaning "all," may 
have been misread as shih, which means "corpse." Allowing for this error, 
the meaning would be that if the multitude assumes leadership of the army 
(rides in the wagon), misfortune will ensue.

	Six in the fourth place means:
	The army retreats. No blame.

In the face of a superior enemy, with whom it would be hopeless to engage in 
battle, an orderly retreat is the only correct procedure, because it will save the 
army from defeat and disintegration. It is by no means a sign of courage or 
strength to insist upon engaging in a hopeless struggle regardless of 

	° Six in the fifth place means:
	There is game in the field.
	It furthers one to catch it.
	Without blame.
	Let the eldest lead the army.
	The younger transports corpses;
	Then perseverance brings misfortune.

Game is in the field--it has left its usual haunts in the forest and is 
devastating the fields. This points to an enemy invasion. Energetic combat 
and punishment are here thoroughly justified, but they must not degenerate 
into a wild melee in which everyone fends for himself. Despite the greatest 
degree of perseverance and bravery, this would lead to misfortune. The army 
must be directed by an experienced leader. It is a matter of waging war, not of 
permitting the mob to slaughter all who fall into their hands; if they do, 
defeat will be the result, and despite all perseverance there is danger of 

	Six at the top means:
	The great prince issues commands,
	Founds states, vests families with fiefs.
	Inferior people should not be employed.

The war has ended successfully, victory is won, and the king divided estates 
and fiefs among his faithful vassals. But it is important that inferior people 
should not come into power. If they have helped, let them be paid off with 
money, but they should not be awarded lands or the privileges of rulers, lest 
power be abused.

	8. Bi / Holding Together [union]


The waters on the surface of the earth flow together wherever they can, as for 
example in the ocean, where all the rivers come together. Symbolically this 
connotes holding together and the laws that regulate it. The same idea is 
suggested by the fact that all the lines of the hexagram except the fifth, the 
place of the ruler, are yielding. The yielding lines hold together because they 
are influenced by a man of strong will in the leading position, a man who is 
their center of union. Moreover, this strong and guiding personality in turn 
holds together with the others, finding in them the complement of his own 


	HOLDING TOGETHER brings good fortune.
	Inquire of the oracle once again
	Whether you possess sublimity, constancy, and perseverance;
	Then there is no blame.
	Those who are uncertain gradually join.
	Whoever come too late
	Meets with misfortune.

What is required is that we unite with others, in order that all may 
complement and aid one another through holding together. But such 
holding together calls for a central figure around whom other persons may 
unite. To become a center of influence holding people together is a grave 
matter and fraught with great responsibility. It requires greatness of spirit, 
consistency, and strength. Therefore let him who wishes to gather others 
about him ask himself whether he is equal to the undertaking, for anyone 
attempting the task without a real calling for it only makes confusion worse 
than if no union at all had taken place.
  But when there is a real rallying point, those who at first are hesitant or 
uncertain gradually come in of their own accord. Late-comers must suffer the 
consequences, for in holding together the question of the right time is also 
important. Relationships are formed and firmly established according to 
definite inner laws. Common experiences strengthen these ties, and he who 
comes too late to share in these basic experiences must suffer for it if, as a 
straggler, he finds the door locked.
  If a man has recognized the necessity for union and does not feel strong 
enough to function as the center, it is his duty to become a member of some 
other organic fellowship.


	On the earth is water:
	Thus the kings of antiquity
	Bestowed the different states as fiefs
	And cultivated friendly relations
	With the feudal lords.

Water fills up all the empty places on the earth and clings fast to it. The social 
organization of ancient China was based on this principle of the holding 
together of dependents and rulers. Water flows to unite with water, because 
all parts of it are subject to the same laws. So too should human society hold 
together through a community of interests that allows each individual to feel 
himself a member of a whole. The central power of a social organization 
must see to it that every member finds that his true interest lies in holding 
together with it, as was the case in the paternal relationship between king and 
vassals in ancient China.


	Six at the beginning means:
	Hold to him in truth and loyalty;
	This is without blame.
	Truth, like a full earthen bowl"
	Thus in the end
	Good fortune comes from without.

Fundamental sincerity is the only proper basis for forming relationships. 
This attitude, symbolized by a full earthen bowl, in which the content is 
everything and the empty form nothing, shows itself not in clever words but 
through the strength of what lies within the speaker. This strength is so great 
that it has power to attract good fortune to itself from without.

 	Six in the second place means:
	Hold to him inwardly.
	Perseverance brings good fortune.
If a person responds perseveringly and in the right way to the behests from 
above that summon him to action, his relations with others are intrinsic and 
he does not lose himself. But if a man seeks association with others as if he 
were an obsequious office hunter, he throws himself away. He does not 
follow the path of the superior man, who never loses his dignity.

	Six in the third place means:
	You hold together with the wrong people.

We are often among people who do not belong to our own sphere. In that 
case we must beware of being drawn into false intimacy through force of 
habit. Needless to say, this would have evil consequences. Maintaining 
sociability without intimacy is the only right attitude toward people, because 
otherwise we should not be free to enter into relationship with people of our 
own kind later on.

	Six in the fourth place means:
	Hold to him outwardly also.
	Perseverance brings good fortune.

Here the relations with a man who is the center of union are well established. 
Then we may, and indeed we should, show our attachment openly. But we 
must remain constant and not allow ourselves to be led astray.

	° Nine in the fifth place means:
	Manifestation of holding together.
	In the hunt the king uses beaters on three sides only
	And forgoes game that runs off in front.
	The citizens need no warning.
	Good fortune.
In the royal hunts of ancient China it was customary to drive up the game 
from three sides, but on the fourth the animals had a chance to run off. If 
they failed to do this they had to pass through a gate behind which the king 
stood ready to shoot. Only animals that entered here were shot; those that 
ran off in front were permitted to escape. This custom accorded with a kingly 
attitude; the royal hunter did not wish to turn the chase into a slaughter, but 
held that the kill should consist only of those animals which had so to speak 
voluntarily exposed themselves. 
  There is depicted here a ruler, or influential man, to whom people are 
attracted. Those who come to him he accepts, those who do not come are 
allowed to go their own way. He invited none, flatters none--all come of 
their own free will. In this way there develops a voluntary dependence 
among those who hold him. They do not have to be constantly on their 
guard but may express their opinions openly. Police measures are not 
necessary, and they cleave to their ruler of their own volition. The same 
principle of freedom is valid for life in general. We should not woo favor 
from people. If a man cultivates within himself the purity and the strength 
that are necessary for one who is the center of a fellowship, those who are 
meant for him come of their own accord.
	Six at the top means:
	He finds no head for holding together.
The head is the beginning. If the beginning is not right, there is no hope of a 
right ending. If we have missed the right moment for union and go on 
hesitating to give complete and full devotion, we shall regret the error when 
it is too late.

	9. Xiaochu / The Taming Power of the Small


This hexagram means the force of the small--the power of the shadowy--that 
restrains, tames, impedes. A weak line in the fourth place, that of the 
minister, holds the five strong lines in check. In the Image it is the wind 
blowing across the sky. The wind restrains the clouds, the rising breath of the 
Creative, and makes them grow dense, but as yet is not strong enough to turn 
them to rain. The hexagram presents a configuration of circumstances in 
which a strong element is temporarily held in leash by a weak element. It is 
only through gentleness that this can have a successful outcome.


	Has success.
	Dense clouds, no rain from our western region.

This image refers to the state of affairs in China at the time when King Wên, 
who came originally from the west, was in the east at the court of the reigning 
tyrant Chou Hsin. The moment for action on a large scale had not yet 
arrived. King Wên could only keep the tyrant somewhat in check by friendly 
persuasion. Hence the image of many clouds, promising moisture and 
blessing to the land, although as yet no rain falls. The situation is not 
unfavorable; there is a prospect of ultimate success, but there are still obstacles 
in the way, and we can merely take preparatory measures. Only through the 
small means of friendly persuasion can we exert any influence. The time has 
not yet come for sweeping measures. However, we may be able, to a limited 
extent, to act as a restraining and subduing influence. To carry out our 
purpose we need firm determination within and gentleness and adaptability 
in external relations.

	The wind drives across heaven:
 	Thus the superior man
	Refines the outward aspect of his nature.

The wind can indeed drive the clouds together in the sky; yet, being nothing 
but air, without solid body, it does not produce great or lasting effects. So also 
an individual, in times when he can produce no great effect in the outer 
world, can do nothing except refine the expression of his nature in small 

	Nine at the beginning means:
	Return to the way.
	How could there be blame in this?
	Good fortune.

It lies in the nature of a strong man to press forward. In so doing he 
encounters obstructions. Therefore he returns to the way suited to his 
situation, where he is free to advance or to retreat. In the nature of things 
this will bring good fortune, for it is wise and reasonable not to try to obtain 
anything by force.

	Nine in the second place means:
	He allows himself to be drawn into returning.
	Good fortune.

One would like to press forward, but before going farther one sees from the 
example of others like oneself that this way is blocked. In such a case, if the 
effort to push forward is not in harmony with the time, a reasonable and 
resolute man will not expose himself to a personal rebuff, but will retreat 
with others of like mind. This brings good fortune, because he does not 
needlessly jeopardize himself.

	Nine in the third place means:
	The spokes burst out of the wagon wheels.
	Man and wife roll their eyes.
Here an attempt is made to press forward forcibly, in the consciousness that 
the obstructing power is slight. But since, under the circumstances, power 
actually lies with the weak, this sudden offensive is doomed to failure. 
External conditions hinder the advance, just as loss of the wheel spokes stops 
the progress of a wagon. We do not yet heed this hint form fate, hence there 
are annoying arguments like those of a married couple. Naturally this is not 
a favorable state of thing, for though the situation may enable the weaker side 
to hold its ground, the difficulties are too numerous to permit of a happy 
result. In consequence even the strong man cannot so use his power as to 
exert the right influence on those around him. He experiences a rebuff where 
he expected an easy victory, and he thus compromises his dignity.

	°Six in the fourth place means:
	If you are sincere, blood vanishes and fear gives way.
	No blame.
If one is in the difficult and responsible position of counselor to a powerful 
man, on should restrain him in such a way that the threat of actual bloodshed 
may arise. Nonetheless, the power of disinterested truth is greater than all 
theses obstacles. It carries such weight that the end is achieved, and all danger 
of bloodshed and all fear disappear.

	°Nine in the fifth place means:
	If you are sincere and loyally attached, 
	You are rich in your neighbor.

Loyalty leads to firm ties because it means that each partner complements the 
other. In the weaker person loyalty consists in devotion, in the stronger it 
consists in trustworthiness. This relation of mutual reinforcement leads to a 
true wealth that is all the more apparent because it is not selfishly hoarded 
but is shared with friends. Pleasure shared is pleasure doubled.
	Nine at the top means:
	The rain comes, there is rest.
	This is due to the lasting effect of character.
	Perseverance brings the woman into danger.
	The moon is nearly full.
	If the superior man persists,
	Misfortune comes.

Success is at hand. The wind has driven up the rain. A fixed standpoint has 
been reach. This has come about through the cumulation of small effects 
produced by reverence for a superior character. But a success thus secured bit 
by bit calls for great caution. It would be a dangerous illusion for anyone to 
think he could presume upon it. The female principle, the weak element 
that has won the victory, should never persist in vaunting it--that would lead 
to danger. The dark power in the moon is strongest when the moon is 
almost full. When it is full and directly opposite the sun, its waning is 
inevitable. Under such circumstances one must be content with what has 
been achieved. To advance any further, before the appropriate time has 
come, would lead to misfortune.

	10. Lu / Treading [conduct]


The name of the hexagram means on the one hand the right way of 
conducting oneself. Heaven, the father, is above, and the lake, the youngest 
daughter, is below. This shows the difference between high and low, upon 
which composure correct social conduct, depends. On the other hand the 
word for the name of the hexagram, TREADING, means literally treading 
upon something. The small and cheerful [Tui] treads upon the large and 
strong [Ch'ien]. The direction of movement of the two primary trigrams is 
upward. The fact that the strong treads on the weak is not mentioned in the 
Book of Changes, because it is taken for granted. For the weak to take a stand 
against the strong is not dangerous here, because it happened in good humor 
[Tui] and without presumption, so that the strong man is not irritated but 
takes it all in good part.


	TREADING. Treading upon the tail of the tiger.
	It does not bite the man. Success.

The situation is really difficult. That which is strongest and that which is 
weakest are close together. The weak follows behind the strong and worries 
it. The strong, however, acquiesces and does not hurt the weak, because the 
contact is in goof humor and harmless.
  In terms of a human situation, one is handling wild, intractable people. In 
such a case one's purpose will be achieved if one behaves with decorum. 
Pleasant manners succeed even with irritable people.


	Heaven above, the lake below:
	The image of TREADING.
	Thus the superior man discriminates between high and low,
	And thereby fortifies the thinking of the people.

Heaven and the lake show a difference of elevation that inheres in the 
natures of the two, hence no envy arises. Among mankind also there are 
necessarily differences of elevation; it is impossible to bring about universal 
equality. But it is important that differences in social rank should not be 
arbitrary and unjust, for if this occurs, envy and class struggle are the 
inevitable consequences. If, on the other hand, external differences in rank 
correspond with differences in inner worth, and if inner worth forms the 
criterion of external rank, people acquiesce and order reigns in society.

	Nine at the beginning means:
	Simple conduct. Progress without blame.

The situation is one in which we are still not bound by any obligations of 
social intercourse. If our conduct is simple, we remain free of them We can 
quietly follow our predilections as long as we are content and make not 
demands on people.
  The meaning of the hexagram is not standstill but progress. A man finds 
himself in an altogether inferior position at the start. However, he has the 
inner strength that guarantees progress. If he can be content with simplicity, 
he can make progress without blame. When a man is dissatisfied with 
modest circumstances, he is restless and ambitious and tries to advance, not 
for the sake of accomplishing anything worth while, but merely in order to 
escape from lowliness and poverty by dint of his conduct. Once his purpose is 
achieved, he is certain to become arrogant and luxury-loving. Therefore 
blame attaches to his progress. On the other hand, a man who is good at his 
work is content to behave simply. He wishes to make progress in order to 
accomplish something. When he attains his goal, he does something worth 
while, an all is well.

	Nine in the second place means:
	Treading a smooth, level course.
	The perseverance of a dark man
	Brings good fortune.

The situation of a lonely sage is indicated here. He remains withdrawn from 
the bustle of life, seeks nothing, asks nothing of anyone, and travels through 
life unassailed, on a level road. Since he is content and does not challenge 
fate, he remains free of entanglements.

	°Six in the third place means:
	A one-eyed man is able to see,
	A lame man is able to tread.
	He treads on the tail of the tiger.
	The tiger bites the man.
	Thus does a warrior act on behalf of his great prince.

A one-eyed man can indeed see, but not enough for clear vision. A lame 
man can indeed treat, but not enough to make progress. If in spite of such 
defects a man considers himself strong and consequently exposes himself to 
danger, he is inviting disaster, for he is undertaking something beyond his 
strength. This reckless way of plunging ahead, regardless of the adequacy of 
one's powers, can be justified only in the case of a warrior battling for his 

	Nine in the fourth place means:
	He treads on the tail of the tiger.
	Caution and circumspection
	Lead ultimately to good fortune.

This text refers to a dangerous enterprise. The inner power to carry it through 
is there, but this inner power is combined with hesitating caution in one's 
external attitude. This line contrasts with the preceding line, which is weak 
within but outwardly presses forward. Here one is sure of ultimate success, 
which consists in achieving one's purpose, that is, in overcoming danger by 
going forward.

	° Nine in the fifth place means:
	Resolute conduct.
	Perseverance with awareness of danger.

This refers to the ruler of the hexagram as a whole. One sees that one has to 
be resolute in conduct. But at the same time one must remain conscious of 
the danger connected with such resoluteness, especially if it is to be 
persevered in. Only awareness of the danger makes success possible.

	Nine at the top means:
	Look to your conduct and weigh the favorable signs.
	When everything is fulfilled, supreme good fortune comes.

The work is ended. If we want to know whether good fortune will follow, we 
must look back upon our conduct and its consequences. If the effects are good, 
then good fortune is certain. No one knows himself. It is only by the 
consequences of his actions, by the fruit of his labors, that a man can judge 
what he is to expect.

	11. Tai / Peace


The Receptive, which moves downward, stands above; the Creative, which 
moves upward, is below. Hence their influences meet and are in harmony, 
so that all living things bloom and prosper. This hexagram belongs to the 
first month (February-March), at which time the forces of nature prepare the 
new spring. 


	PEACE. The small departs,
	The great approaches.
	Good fortune. Success.

This hexagram denotes a time in nature when heaven seems to be on earth. 
Heaven has placed itself beneath the earth, and so their powers unite in deep 
harmony. Then peace and blessing descend upon all living things.
  In the world of man it is a time of social harmony; those in high places 
show favor to the lowly, and the lowly and inferior is an end to all feuds. 
  In side, at the center, in the key position, is the light principle; the dark 
principle is outside. Thus the light has a powerful influence, while the dark 
is submissive. In this way each receives its due. When the good elements of 
society occupy a central position and are in control, the evil elements come 
under their influence and change for the better. When the spirit of heaven 
rules in man, his animal nature also comes under its influence and takes its 
appropriate place. 
  The individual lines enter the hexagram from below and leave it again at 
the top. Here the small, weak, and evil elements are about to take their 
departure, while the great, strong, and good elements are moving up. This 
brings good fortune and success.


	Heaven and earth unite: the image of PEACE.
	Thus the ruler
	Divides and completes the course of heaven and earth,
	And so aids the people.

Heaven and earth are in contact and combine their influences, producing a 
time of universal flowering and prosperity. This stream of energy must be 
regulated by the ruler of men. It is done by a process of division. Thus men 
divide the uniform flow of time into the seasons, according to the succession 
of natural phenomena, and mark off infinite space by the points of the 
compass. In this way nature in its overwhelming profusion of phenomena is 
bounded and controlled. One the other hand, nature must be furthered in 
her productiveness. This is done by adjusting the products to the right time 
and the right place, which increases the natural yield.  This controlling and 
furthering activity of man in his relation to nature is the work on nature that 
rewards him.

	Nine at the beginning means:
	When ribbon grass is pulled up, the sod comes with it.
	Each according to his kind.
	Undertakings bring good fortune.

In times of prosperity every able man called to fill an office draws like minded 
people along with him, just as in pulling up ribbon grass one always pulls up 
a bunch of it, because the stalks are connected by their roots. In such times, 
when it is possible to extend influence widely, the mind of an able man is set 
upon going out into life and accomplishing something.

	° Nine in the second place means:
	 Bearing with the uncultured in gentleness,
	 Fording the river with resolution,
	 Not neglecting what is distant,
	 Not regarding one's companions:
	Thus one may manage to walk in the middle.

In times of prosperity it is important and above all to possess enough 
greatness of soul to bear with imperfect people. For in the hands of a great 
master no material is unproductive; he can find use for everything. But this 
generosity is by no means laxity or weakness. It is during times of prosperity 
especially that we must always be ready to risk even dangerous undertakings, 
such as the crossing of a river, if they are necessary. So too we must not 
neglect what is distant but must attend scrupulously to everything. 
Factionalism and the dominance of cliques are especially to be avoided. Even 
if people of like mind come forward together, they ought not to form a faction 
by holding together for mutual advantage; instead, each man should do is 
duty. Theses are four ways in which one can overcome the hidden danger of 
a gradual slackening that always lurks in any time of peace. And that is how 
one finds the middle way for action.

	Nine in the third place means:
	No plain not followed by a slope.
	No going not followed by a return.
	 He who remains persevering in danger
	Is without blame.
	Do not complain about this truth;
	Enjoy the good fortune you still possess.
Everything on earth is subject to change. Prosperity is followed by decline: 
this is the eternal law on earth. Evil can indeed be held in check but not 
permanently abolished. It always returns. This conviction might induct 
melancholy, but it should not; it ought only to keep us from falling into 
illusion when good fortune comes to us. If we continue mindful of the 
danger, we remain persevering and make no mistakes. As long as a man's 
inner nature remains stronger and richer than anything offered by external 
fortune, as long as he remains inwardly superior to fate, fortune will not 
desert him.

	Six in the fourth place means:
	He flutters down, not boasting of his wealth,
	Together with his neighbor,
	Guileless and sincere.

In times of mutual confidence, people of high rank come in close contact with 
the lowly quite simply and without boasting of their wealth. This is not due 
to the force of circumstances but corresponds with their inmost sentiment. 
The approach is made quite spontaneously, because it is based on inner 

	° Six in the fifth place means:
	The sovereign I
	Gives his daughter in marriage.
	And supreme good fortune.

The sovereign I is T'ang the Completer. By his decree the imperial princesses, 
although higher in rank than their husbands, had to obey them like all other 
wives. Here too we are shown a truly modest union of high and low that 
brings happiness and blessings.

	Six at the top means:
	The wall falls back into the moat.
	Use no army now.
	Make your commands known within your own town.
	Perseverance brings humiliation.

The change alluded to in the middle of the hexagram has begun to take place. 
The wall of the town sinks back into the moat from which it was dug. The 
hour of doom is at hand. When matters have come to this pass, we should 
submit to fate and not try to stave it off by violent resistance. The one 
recourse left us is to hold our own within our intimate circle. Should we 
persevere in trying to resist the evil in the usual way, our collapse would only 
be more complete, and humiliation would be the result.

	12. Pi / Standstill [Stagnation]


This hexagram is the opposite of the preceding one. Heaven is above, 
drawing farther and farther away, while the earth below sinks farther into the 
depths. The creative powers are not in relation. It is a time of standstill and 
decline. This hexagram is linked with the seventh month (August-
September), when the year has passed its zenith and autumnal decay is setting 


	STANDSTILL. Evil people do not further
	The perseverance of the superior man.
	The great departs; the small approaches.

Heaven and earth are out of communion and all things are benumbed. What 
is above has no relation to what is below, and on earth confusion and 
disorder prevail. The dark power is within, the light power is without. 
Weakness is within, harshness without. Within are the inferior, and 
without are the superior. The way of inferior people is in ascent; the way of 
superior people is one the decline. But the superior people do not allow 
themselves to be turned from their principles. If the possibility of exerting 
influence is closed to them, they nevertheless remain faithful to their 
principles and withdraw into seclusion.

	Heaven and earth do not unite:
	The image of STANDSTILL.
	Thus the superior man falls back upon his inner worth 
	In order to escape the difficulties.
	He does not permit himself to be honored with revenue.

When, owing to the influence of inferior men, mutual mistrust prevails in 
public life, fruitful activity is rendered impossible, because the fundaments 
are wrong. Therefore the superior man knows what he must do under such 
circumstances; he does not allow himself to be tempted by dazzling offers to 
take part in public activities. This would only expose him to danger, since he 
cannot assent to the meanness of the others. He therefore hides his worth 
and withdraws into seclusion.


	Six at the beginning means:
	When ribbon grass is pulled up, the sod comes with it.
	Each according to his kind.
	Perseverance brings good fortune and success.

The text is almost the same as that of the first line of the preceding hexagram, 
but with a contrary meaning. In the latter a man is drawing another along 
with him on the road to an official career; here a man is drawing another 
with him into retirement form public life. This is why the text says here, 
"Perseverance brings good fortune and success," and not "Undertakings bring 
good fortune." If it becomes impossible to make our influence count, it is 
only by retirement that we spare ourselves humiliation. Success in a higher 
sense can be ours, because we know how to safeguard the value of our 

	°Six in the second place means:
	They bear and endure;
	This means good fortune for inferior people.
	The standstill serves to help the great man to attain success.

Inferior people are ready to flatter their superiors in a servile way. They 
would also endure the superior man if he would put an end to their 
confusion. This is fortunate for them. But the great man calmly bears the 
consequences of the standstill. He does not mingle with the crowd of the 
inferior; that is not his place. By his willingness to suffer personally he 
insures the success of his fundamental principles.
	Six in the third place means:
	They bear shame.

Inferior people who have risen to power illegitimately do not feel equal to the 
responsibility they have taken upon themselves. In their hearts they begin to 
be ashamed, although at first they do not show it outwardly. This marks a 
turn for the better. 
	Nine in the fourth place means:
	He who acts at the command of the highest 
	Remains without blame.
	Those of like mind partake of the blessing.

The time of standstill is nearing the point of change into its opposite. 
Whoever wishes to restore order must feel himself called to the task and 
have the necessary authority. A man who sets himself up a capable of 
creating order according to his own judgment could make mistakes and end 
in failure. But the man who is truly called to the task is favored by the 
conditions of the time, and all those of like mind will share in his blessing. 

	° Nine in the fifth place means:
	Standstill is giving way.
	Good fortune for the great man.
	"What if it should fail, what if it should fail?"
	In this way he ties it to a cluster of mulberry shoots.

The time undergoes a change. The right man, able to restore order, has 
arrived. Hence "good fortune." But such periods of transition are the very 
times in which we must fear and tremble. Success is assured only through 
greatest caution, which asks always, "What if it should fail?" When a 
mulberry bush is cut down, a number of unusually strong shoots sprout from 
the roots. Hence the image of tying something to a cluster of mulberry shoots 
is used to symbolize the way of making success certain. Confucius says about 
this line:

Danger arises when a man feels secure in his position. Destruction threatens 
when a man seeks to preserve his worldly estate. Confusion develops when a 
man has put everything in order. Therefore the superior man does not forget 
danger in his security, not ruin when he is well established, nor confusion 
when his affairs are in order. In this way he gains personal safety and is able 
to protect the empire.

	Nine at the top means:
	The standstill comes to an end.
	First standstill, then good fortune.

The standstill does not last forever. However, it does not cease of its own 
accord; the right man is needed to end it. This is the difference between a 
state of peace and a state of stagnation. Continuous effort is necessary to 
maintain peace: left to itself it would change into stagnation and 
disintegration. The time of disintegration, however, does not change back 
automatically to a condition of peace and prosperity; effort must be put forth 
in order to end it. This shows the creative attitude that man must take if the 
world is to be put in order.

	13. Tongren / Fellowship with Men


The image of the upper trigram Ch'ien is heaven, and that of the lower, Li, is 
flame. It is the nature of fire to flame up to the heaven. This gives the idea of 
fellowship. IT is the second line that, by virtue of its central character, unites 
the five strong lines around it. This hexagram forms a complement to Shih, 
THE ARMY (7). In the latter, danger is within and obedience without--the 
character of a warlike army, which, in order to hold together, needs one 
strong man among the many who are weak. Here, clarity is within and 
strength without--the character of a peaceful union of men, which, in order to 
hold together, needs one yielding nature among many firm persons.


	It furthers one to cross the great water.
	The perseverance of the superior man furthers.

True fellowship among men must be based upon a concern that is universal. 
It is not the private interests of the individual that create lasting fellowship 
among men, but rather the goals of humanity. That is why it is said that 
fellowship with men in the open succeeds. If unity of this kind prevails, 
even difficult and dangerous tasks, such as crossing the great water, can be 
accomplished. But in order to bring about this sort of fellowship, a 
persevering and enlightened leader is needed--a man with clear, convincing, 
and inspiring aims and the strength to carry them out. (The inner trigram 
means clarity; the outer, strength.)


	Heaven together with fire:
	Thus the superior man organizes the clans
	And makes distinctions between things.

Heaven has the same direction of movement as fire, yet it is different from 
fire. Just as the luminaries in the sky serve for the systematic division and 
arrangement of time, so human society and all things that really belong 
together must be organically arranged. Fellowship should not be a mere 
mingling of individuals or of things--that would be chaos, not fellowship. If 
fellowship is to lead to order, there must be organization within diversity.


	Nine at the beginning means:
	Fellowship with men at the gate.
	No blame.

The beginning of union among people should take place before the door. All 
are equally close to one another. No divergent aims have yet arisen, and one 
makes not mistakes. The basic principles of any kind of union must be 
equally accessible to all concerned. Secret agreements bring misfortune.

	° Six in the second place means:
	Fellowship with men in the clan.

There is danger here of formation of a separate faction on the basis of 
personal and egotistic interests. Such factions, which are exclusive and, 
instead of welcoming all men, must condemn one group in order to unite the 
others, originate from low motives and therefore lead in the course of time to 

	Nine in the third place means:
	He hides weapons in the thicket;
	He climbs the high hill in front of it.
	For three years he does not rise up.

Here fellowship has changed about to mistrust. Each man distrusts the other, 
plans a secret ambush, and seeks to spy on his fellow form afar. We are 
dealing with an obstinate opponent whom we cannot come at by this method. 
Obstacles standing in the way of fellowship with others are shown here. One 
has mental reservations for one's own part and seeks to take his opponent by 
surprise. This very fact makes one mistrustful, suspecting the same wiles in 
his opponent and trying to ferret them out. The result is that one departs 
further and further from true fellowship. The longer this goes on, the more 
alienated one becomes.

	Nine in the fourth place means:
	He climbs up on his wall; he cannot attack.
	Good fortune.

Here the reconciliation that follows quarrel mover nearer. It is true that there 
are still dividing walls on which we stand confronting one another. But the 
difficulties are too great. We get into straits, and this brings us to our senses. 
We cannot fight, and therein lies our good fortune.
	° Nine in the fifth place means:
	Men bound in fellowship first weep and lament,
	But afterward they laugh.
	After great struggles they succeed in meeting.

Two people are outwardly separated, but in their hearts they are united. They 
are kept apart by their positions in life. Many difficulties and obstructions 
arise between them and cause them grief. But, remaining true to each other, 
the allow nothing to separate them, and although it costs them a severe 
struggle to overcome the obstacles, they will succeed. When they come 
together their sadness will change to joy. Confucius says of this:

Life leads the thoughtful man on a path of many windings.
Now the course is checked, now it runs straight again.
Here winged thoughts may pour freely forth in words,
There the heavy burden of knowledge must be shut away in silence.
But when two people are at one in the inmost hearts,
They shatter even the strength of iron or of bronze.
And when two people understand each other in their inmost hearts,
Their words are sweet and strong, like the fragrance of orchids.

	Nine at the top means:
	Fellowship with men in the meadow.
	No remorse.

The warm attachment that springs from the heart is lacking here. We are by 
this time actually outside of fellowship with others. However, we ally 
ourselves with them. The fellowship does not include all, but only those 
who happen to dwell near one another. The meadow is the pasture at the 
entrance to the town. At this stage, the ultimate goal of the union of 
mankind has not yet been attained, but we need not reproach ourselves. We 
join the community without separate aims of our own. 

	 14. Da'you / Possession in Great Measure


The fire in heaven above shines far, and all things stand out in the light and 
become manifest. The weak fifth line occupies the place of honor and all the 
strong lines are in accord with it.
All things come to the man who is modest and kind in a high position.


	Supreme success.

The two trigrams indicate that strength and clarity unite. Possessions great 
measure is determined by fate and accords with the time. How is it possible 
that the weak line has power to hold the strong lines fast and to possess 
them? It is done by virtue of unselfish modesty. The time is favorable--a 
time of strength within, clarity and culture without. Power is expressing itself 
in graceful and controlled way. This brings supreme success and wealth.


	Fire in heaven above:
	Thus the superior man curbs evil and furthers good,
	And thereby obeys the benevolent will of heaven.

The sun in heaven above, shedding light over everything one earth, is the 
image of possession on a grand scale. But a possession of this sort must be 
administered properly. The sun brings both evil and good into the light of 
day. Man must combat and curb the evil, and must favor and promote the 
good. Only in this way does he fulfill the benevolent will of God, who desires 
only good and not evil.


	Nine at the beginning means:
	No relationship with what is harmful;
	There is no blame in this.
	If one remains conscious of difficulty,
	One remains without blame.

Great possession that is still in its beginnings and that has not yet been 
challenged brings no blame, since there has been no opportunity to make 
mistakes. Yet there are many difficulties to be overcome. It is only by 
remaining conscious of theses difficulties that one can keep inwardly free of 
possible arrogance and wastefulness, and thus in principle overcome all cause 
for blame.

	Nine in the second place means:
	A big wagon for loading.
	One may undertake something.
	No blame.

Great possession consists not only in the quantity of goods at one's disposal, 
but first and foremost, in their mobility and utility, for then they can be used 
in undertakings, and we remain free of embarrassment and mistakes. The big 
wagon, which will carry a heavy load and in which one can journey farm 
means that there are at hand able helpers who give their support t and are 
equal to their task. One can load great responsibility upon such persons, and 
this is necessary in important undertakings.

	Nine in the third place means:
	A prince offers it to the Son of Heaven.
	A petty man cannot do this.

A magnanimous, liberal-minded man should not regard what he possesses as 
his exclusive personal property , but should place it at the disposal of the ruler 
or of the people at large. In so doing, he takes the right attitude toward his 
possession, which as private property can never endure. A petty man is 
incapable of this. He is harmed by great possessions, because instead of 
sacrificing them, he would keep them for himself.

	Nine in the fourth place means:
	He makes a difference
	Between himself and his neighbor.
	No blame.

This characterizes the position of a man placed among rich and powerful 
neighbors. It is a dangerous position. He must look neither to the right nor 
to the left, and must shun envy and the temptation to vie with others. In this 
way he remains free of mistakes.

	°Six in the fifth place means:
	He whose truth is accessible, yet dignified,
	Has good fortune.

The situation is very favorable. People are being won not by coercion but by 
unaffected sincerity, so that they are attached to us in sincerity and truth. 
However, benevolence alone is not sufficient at the time of POSSESSION IN 
GREAT MEASURE. For insolence might begin to spread. Insolence must be 
kept in bounds by dignity; then good fortune is assured.

	Nine at the top means:
	He is blessed by heaven.
	Good fortune.
	Nothing that does not further.

In the fullness of possession and at the height of power, one remains modest 
and gives honor to the sage who stands outside the affairs of the world. By 
this means one puts oneself under the beneficent influence descending form 
heaven, and all goes well. Confucius says of this line:

To bless means to help. Heaven helps the man who is devoted; men help the 
man who is true. He who walks in truth and is devoted in his thinking, and 
furthermore reveres the worthy, is blessed by heaven. He has good fortune, 
and there is nothing that would not further.

	15. Qian / Modesty


This hexagram is made up of the trigrams Kên, Keeping Still, mountain, and 
K'un. The mountain is the youngest son of the Creative, the representative 
of heaven and earth. It dispenses the blessings of heaven, the clouds and rain 
that gather round its summit, and thereafter shines forth radiant with 
heavenly light. This shows what modesty is and how it functions in great 
and strong men. K'un, the earth, stands above. Lowliness is a quality of the 
earth: this is the very reason why it appears in this hexagram as exalted, by 
being placed above the mountain. This shows how modesty functions in 
lowly, simple people: they are lifted up by it.


	MODESTY creates success.
	The superior man carries things through.

It is the law of heaven to make fullness empty and to make full what is 
modest; when the sun is at its zenith, it must, according to the law of heaven, 
turn toward its setting, and at its nadir it rises toward a new dawn. In 
obedience to the same law, the moon when it is full begins to wane, and 
when empty of light it waxes again. This heavenly law works itself out in the 
fates of men also. It is the law of earth to alter the full and to contribute to the 
modest. High mountains are worn down by the waters, and the valleys are 
filled up. It is the law of fate to undermine what is full and to prosper the 
modest. And men also hate fullness and love the modest.
  The destinies of men are subject to immutable laws that must fulfill 
themselves. But man has it in his power to shape his fate, according as his 
behavior exposes him to the influence of benevolent or of destructive forces. 
When a man holds a high position and is nevertheless modest, he shines 
with the light of wisdom; if he is in a lowly position and is modest, he cannot 
be passed by. Thus the superior man can carry out his work to the end 
without boasting of what he has achieved.


	Within the earth, a mountain:
	The image of MODESTY.
	Thus the superior man reduces that which is too much,
	And augments that which is too little.
	He weighs things and makes them equal.

The wealth of the earth in which a mountain is hidden is not visible to the 
eye, because the depths are offset by the height of the mountain. Thus high 
and low competent each other and the result is the plain. Here an effect that 
it took a long time to achieve, but that in the end seems easy of 
accomplishment and self-evident, is used as the image of modesty. The 
superior man does the same thing when he establishes order in the world; he 
equalizes the extremes that are the source of social discontent and thereby 
creates just and equable conditions.


	Six at the beginning means:
	A superior man modest about his modesty
	May cross the great water.
	Good fortune.

A dangerous enterprise, such as the crossing of a great stream, is made much 
more difficult if many claims and considerations have to be taken into 
account. On the other hand, the task is easy if it is attended to quickly and 
simply. Therefore the unassuming attitude of mind that goes with modesty 
fits a man to accomplish even difficult undertakings: he imposes no 
demands or stipulations but settles matters easily and quickly. Where no 
claims are put forward, no resistances arise.

	Six in the second place means:
	Modesty that comes to expression. Perseverance brings good fortune.

"Out of the fullness of the heart the mouth speaketh." When a man's 
attitude of mind is so modest that this expresses itself in his outward 
behavior, it is a source of good fortune to him. For the possibility of exerting 
a lasting influence arises of itself and no one can interfere.

	°Nine in the third place means:
	A superior man of modesty and merit
	Carries things to conclusion.
	Good fortune.

This is the center of the hexagram, where its secret is disclosed. A 
distinguished name is readily earned by great achievements. If a man allows 
himself to be dazzled by fame, he will soon be criticized, and difficulties will 
arise. If, on the contrary, he remains modest despite his merit, he makes 
himself beloved and wins the support necessary for carrying his work 
through to the end.

	Six in the fourth place means:
	Nothing that would not further modesty
	In movement.

Everything has its proper measure. Even modesty in behavior can be carried 
too far. Here, however, it is appropriate, because the place between a worthy 
helper below and a kindly ruler above carries great responsibility. The 
confidence of the man in superior place must not be abused nor the merits of 
the man in inferior placed concealed. There are officials who indeed do not 
strive for prominence; they hide behind the letter of ordinances, decline all 
responsibility, accept pay without giving its equivalent in work, and bear 
empty titles. This is the opposite of what is meant here by modesty. In such a 
position, modesty is shown by interest in one's work.

	Six in the fifth place means:
	No boasting of wealth before one's neighbor. 
	It is favorable to attack with force.
	Nothing that would not further.

Modesty is not to be confused with weak good nature that lets things take 
their own course. When a man holds a responsible position, he must at times 
resort to energetic measures. In doing so he must not try to make an 
impression by boasting of his superiority but must make certain of the people 
around him. The measures taken should be purely objective and in no way 
personally offensive. Thus modesty manifests itself even in severity.

	Six at the top means:
	Modesty that comes to expression.
	It is favorable to set armies marching
	To chastise one's own city and one's country.

A person who is really sincere in his modesty must make it show in reality. 
He must proceed with great energy in this. When enmity arises nothing is 
easier than to lay the blame on another. A weak man takes offense perhaps, 
and draws back, feeling self-pity; he thinks that it is modesty that keeps him 
from defending himself. Genuine modesty sets one to creating order and 
inspires one to begin by disciplining one's own ego and one's immediate 
circle. Only through having the courage to marshal one's armies against 
oneself, will something forceful really be achieved.

	16. Yu / Enthusiasm


The strong line in the fourth place, that of the leading official, meets with 
response and obedience from all the other lines, which are all weak. The 
attribute of the upper trigram, Chên, is movement; the attributes of K'un, the 
lower, are obedience and devotion. This begins a movement that meets with 
devotion and therefore inspires enthusiasm, carrying all with it. Of great 
importance, furthermore, is the law of movement along the line of least 
resistance, which in this hexagram is enunciated as the law for natural events 
and for human life.


	ENTHUSIASM. It furthers one to install helpers
	And to set armies marching.

The time of ENTHUSIASM derives from the fact that there is at hand an 
eminent man who is in sympathy with the spirit of the people and acts in 
accord with it. Hence he finds universal and willing obedience. To arouse 
enthusiasm it is necessary for a man to adjust himself and his ordinances to 
the character of those whom he has to lead. The inviolability of natural laws 
rests on this principle of movement along the line of least resistance. Theses 
laws are not forces external to things but represent the harmony of 
movement immanent in them. That is why the celestial bodies do not 
deviate from their orbits and why all events in nature occur with fixed 
regularity. It is the same with human society: only such laws are rooted in 
popular sentiment can be enforced, while laws violating this sentiment 
merely arouse resentment.
  Again, it is enthusiasm that enables us to install helpers for the completion 
of an undertaking without fear of secret opposition. It is enthusiasm too that 
can unify mass movements, as in war, so that they achieve victory.


	Thunder comes resounding out of the earth:
	The image of ENTHUSIASM.
	Thus the ancient kings made music 
	In order to honor merit,
	And offered it with splendor
	To the Supreme Deity,
	Inviting their ancestors to be present.

When, at the beginning of summer, thunder--electrical energy--comes 
rushing forth from the earth again, and the first thunderstorm refreshes 
nature, a prolonged state of tension is resolved. Joy and relief make 
themselves felt. So too, music has power to ease tension within the heart and 
to loosen the grip of obscure emotions. The enthusiasm of the heart 
expresses itself involuntarily in a burst of song, in dance and rhythmic 
movement of the body. From immemorial times the inspiring effect of the 
invisible sound that moves all hearts, and draws them together, has mystified 
  Rulers have made use of this natural taste for music; they elevated and 
regulated it. Music was looked upon as something serious and holy, designed 
to purify the feelings of men. It fell to music to glorify the virtues of heroes 
and thus to construct a bridge to the world of the unseen. In the temple men 
drew near to God with music and pantomimes (out of this later the theater 
developed). Religious feeling for the Creator of the world was united with 
the most sacred of human feelings, that of reverence for the ancestors. The 
ancestors were invited to these divine services as guests of the Ruler of 
Heaven and as representatives of humanity in the higher regions. This 
uniting of the human past with the Divinity in solemn moments of 
religious inspiration established the bond between God and man. The ruler 
who revered the Divinity in revering his ancestors became thereby the Son of 
Heaven, in whom the heavenly and the earthly world met in mystical 
  These ideas are the final summation of Chinese culture. Confucius has said 
of the great sacrifice at which these rites were performed: "He who could 
wholly comprehend this sacrifice could rule the world as though it were 
spinning on his hand."


	Six at the beginning means:
	Enthusiasm that expresses itself
	Brings misfortune.

A man in an inferior position has aristocratic connections about which he 
boasts enthusiastically. This arrogance inevitably invites misfortune.  
Enthusiasm should never be an egotistic emotion; it is justified only when it 
is a general feeling that unites one with others.

	Six in the second place means:
	Firm as a rock. Not a whole day.
	Perseverance brings good fortune.

This describes a person who does not allow himself to be misled by any 
illusions. While others are letting themselves be dazzled by enthusiasm, he 
recognizes with perfect clarity the first signs of the time. Thus he neither 
flatters those above nor neglects those beneath him; he is as firm as a rock. 
When the first sign of discord appears, he knows the right moment for 
withdrawing and does not delay even for a day. Perseverance in such conduct 
will bring good fortune. Confucius says about this line:

To know the seeds, that is divine indeed. In his association with those above 
him, the superior man does not flatter. In his association with those beneath 
him, he is not arrogant. For he knows the seeds. The seeds are the first 
imperceptible beginning of movement, the first trace of good fortune (or 
misfortune) that shows itself. The superior man perceives the seeds and 
immediately takes actin. He does not wait even a whole day. In the Book of 
Changes it is said: "Firm as a rock. Not a whole day. Perseverance brings 
good fortune."
	Firm as a rock, what need of a whole day?
	The judgment can be known.
	The superior man knows what is hidden and what is evident.
	He knows weakness, he knows strength as well.
	Hence the myriads look up to him.

	Six in the third place means:
	Enthusiasm that looks upward creates remorse.
	Hesitation brings remorse.

This line is the opposite of the preceding one: the latter bespeaks self-reliance, 
while here there is enthusiastic looking up to a leader. If a man hesitates too 
long, this also will bring remorse. The right moment for approach must be 
seized: only then will he do the right thing.

	°Nine in the fourth place means:
	The source of enthusiasm.
	He achieves great things.
	Doubt not.
	You gather friends around you
	As a hair clasp gathers the hair.

This describes a man who is able to awaken enthusiasm through his own 
sureness and freedom from hesitation. He attracts people because he has no 
doubts and is wholly sincere. Owing to his confidence in them he wins their 
enthusiastic co-operation and attains success. Just as a clasp draws the hair 
together and hold it, so he draws man together by the support he gives them.

	Six in the fifth place means:
	Persistently ill, and still does not die.

Here enthusiasm is obstructed. A man is under constant pressure, which 
prevents him from breathing freely. However, this pressure has its 
advantage--it prevents him from consuming his powers in empty 
enthusiasm. Thus constant pressure can actually serve to keep one alive.

	Six at the top means:	
	Deluded enthusiasm.
	But if after completion one changes, 
	There is no blame.

It is a bad thing for a man to let himself be deluded by enthusiasm. But if this 
delusion has run its course, and he is still capable of changing, then he is 
freed of error. A sober awakening from false enthusiasm is quite possible and 
very favorable.

	17. Sui / Following


The trigram Tui, the Joyous, whose attribute is gladness, is above; Chên, the 
Arousing, which has the attribute of movement, is below. Joy in movement 
induces following. The Joyous is the youngest daughter, while the Arousing 
is the eldest son. An older man defers to a young girl and shows her 
consideration. By this he moves her to follow him.


	FOLLOWING has supreme success.
	Perseverance furthers. No blame.

In order to obtain a following one must first know how to adapt oneself. If a 
man would rule he must first learn to serve, for only in this way does he 
secure from those below him the joyous assent that is necessary if they are to 
follow him. If he has to obtain a following by force or cunning, by conspiracy 
or by creating faction, he invariably arouses resistance, which obstructs 
willing adherence. But even joyous movement can lead to evil 
consequences, hence the added stipulation, "Perseverance furthers" --that is, 
consistency in doing right-- together with "No blame." Just as we should not 
ask others to follow us unless this condition is fulfilled, so it is only under 
this condition that we can in turn follow others without coming to harm. 
  The thought of obtaining a following through adaptation to the demands of 
the time is a great and significant idea; this is why the appended judgment is 
so favorable.


	Thunder in the middle of the lake:
	The image of FOLLOWING.
	Thus the superior man at nightfall
	Goes indoors for rest and recuperation.

In the autumn electricity withdraws into the earth again and rests. Here it is 
the thunder in the middle of the lake that serves as the image--thunder in its 
winter rest, not thunder in motion. The idea of following in the sense of 
adaptation to the demands of the time grows out of this image. Thunder in 
the middle of the lake indicates times of darkness and rest. Similarly, a 
superior man, after being tirelessly active all day, allows himself rest and 
recuperation at night. No situation can become favorable until one is able to 
adapt to it and does not wear himself out with mistaken resistance.


	°Nine at the beginning means:
	The standard is changing.
	Perseverance brings good fortune.
	To go out of the door in company
	Produces deeds.

There are exceptional conditions in which the relation between leader and 
followers changes. It is implicit in the idea of following and adaptation that if 
one wants to lead others, one must remain accessible and responsive to the 
views of those under him. At the same time, however, he must have firm 
principles, so that he does not vacillate where there is only a question of 
current opinion. Once we are ready to listen to the opinions of others, we 
must not associate exclusively with people who share our views or with 
members of our own party; instead, we must go out and mingle freely with 
all sorts of people, friends or foes. That is the only way to achieve something.

	Six in the second place means:
	If one clings to the little boy,
	One loses the strong man.

In friendships and close relationships an individual must make a careful 
choice. He surrounds himself either with good or with bad company; he 
cannot have both at once. If he throws himself away on unworthy friends he 
loses connection with people of intellectual power who could further him in 
the good.

	Six in the third place means:
	If one clings to the strong man,
	One loses the little boy.
	Through following one finds what one seeks.
	It furthers one to remain persevering.

When the right connection with distinguished people has been found, a 
certain loss naturally ensues. A man must part company with the inferior 
and superficial. But in his heart he will feel satisfied, because he seeks and 
needs for the development of his personality. The important thing is to 
remain firm. He must know what he wants and not be led astray by 
momentary inclinations.

	Nine in the fourth place means:
	Following creates success.
	Perseverance brings misfortune.
	To go one's way with sincerity brings clarity.
	How could there be blame in this?

It often happens, when a man exerts a certain amount of influence, that he 
obtains a following by condescension toward inferiors. But the people who 
attach themselves to him are not honest in their intentions. They seek 
personal advantage and try to make themselves indispensable through 
flattery and subservience. If one becomes accustomed to such satellites and 
cannot do without them, it brings misfortune. Only when a man is 
completely free from his ego, and intent, by conviction, upon what is right 
and essential, does he acquire the clarity that enables him to see through such 
people, and become free of blame.

	°Nine in the fifth place means:
	Sincere in the good. Good fortune.

Every man must have something he follows--something that serves him as a 
lodestar. He who follows with conviction the beautiful and the good may feel 
himself strengthened by this saying.

	Six at the top means:
	He meets with firm allegiance
	And is still further bound.
	The king introduces him
	To the Western Mountain.

This refers to a man, an exalted sage, who has already put the turmoil of the 
world behind him. But a follower appears who understands him and is not 
to be put off. So the sage comes back into the world and aids the other in his 
work. Thus there develops an eternal tie between the two.
  The allegory is chosen from the annals of the Chou dynasty. The rulers of 
this dynasty honored men who had served them well by awarding them a 
place in the royal family's temple of ancestors on the Western Mountain. In 
this way they were regarded as sharing in the destiny of the ruling family. 

	18. Gu / Work on what has been spoiled [ Decay ]

		below  Sun  THE GENTLE, WIND

The Chinese character ku represents a bowl in whose contents worms are 
breeding. This means decay. IT is come about because the gentle indifference 
in the lower trigram has come together with the rigid inertia of the upper, 
and the result is stagnation. Since this implies guilt, the conditions embody a 
demand for removal of the cause. Hence the meaning of the hexagram is not 
simply "what has been spoiled" but "work on what has been spoiled".  

	Has supreme success.
	It furthers one to cross the great water.
	Before the starting point, three days.
	After the starting point, three days.

What has been spoiled through man's fault can be made good again through 
man's work. IT is not immutable fate, as in the time of STANDSTILL, that 
has caused the state of corruption, but rather the abuse of human freedom. 
Work toward improving conditions promises well, because it accords the 
possibilities of the time. We must not recoil from work and danger-
symbolized by crossing of the great water-but must take hold energetically. 
Success depends, however, on proper deliberation. This is expressed by the 
lines, "Before the starting point, three days. After the starting point, three 
days." We must first know the cause of corruption before we can do away 
with them; hence it is necessary to be cautious during the time before the 
start. Then we must see to it that the new way is safely entered upon, so that 
a relapse may be avoided; therefore we must pay attention to the time after 
the start. Decisiveness and energy must take the place of inertia and 
indifference that have led to decay, in order that the ending may be followed 
by a new beginning. 


	The wind blows low on the mountain:
	The image of DECAY.
	Thus the superior man stirs up the people
	And strengthens their spirit.

When the wind blow s slow on the mountain, it is thrown back and spoils 
the vegetation. This contains a challenge to improvement. It is the same 
with debasing attitudes and fashions; they corrupt human society. His 
methods likewise must be derived from the two trigrams, but in such a way 
that their effects unfold in orderly sequence. The superior must first remove 
stagnation by stirring up public opinion, as the wind stirs up everything, and 
must strengthen and tranquilize the character of the people, as the mountain 
gives tranquillity and nourishment to all that grows in its vicinity. 


	Six in the beginning means:
	Setting right what has been spoiled by the father.
	If there is a son, 
	No blame rests upon the departed father. 
	Danger. In the end good fortune.

Rigid adherence to tradition has resulted in decay. But the decay has not yet 
penetrated deeply and so can still be easily remedied. It is as if a son were 
compensated for the decay his father allowed to creep in. Then no blame 
attaches to the father. However, one must not overlook the danger or take 
the matter too lightly. Only if one is conscious of the danger connected with 
every reform will everything go well in the end. 

	Nine in the second place means:
	Setting right what has been spoiled by the mother.
	One must not be too persevering.
This refers to mistakes that as a result of weakness have brought about decay-
hence the symbol, "what has been spoiled by the mother. " In setting things 
right in such a case, a certain gentle consideration is called for. In order not to 
wound, one should not attempt to proceed too drastically. 
	Nine in the third place means:
	Setting right what has been spoiled by the father.
	There will be a little remorse. No great blame.

This describes a man who proceeds a little too energetically in righting the 
mistakes of the past. Now and then, as a result, minor discourse and 
annoyances will surely develop. But too much energy is better than too little. 
Therefore, although he may at times have slight cause for regret, he remains 
free of any serious blame. 

	Six in the fourth place means:
	Tolerating what has been spoiled by the father.
	In continuing one sees humiliation.
This shows the situation of someone too weak to take measures against decay 
that has its roots in the past and is just beginning to manifest itself. It is 
allowed to run its course. If this continues, humiliation will result. 

	° Six in the fifth place means:
	Setting right what has been spoiled by the father.
	One meets with praise.

An individual is confronted with corruption originating from neglect in 
former times. He lacks the power to ward it off alone, but with able helpers 
he can at least bring about a thorough reform, if he cannot create a new 
beginning, and this also is praiseworthy.

	Nine at the top means:
	He does not serve kings and princes,
	Sets himself higher goals.
Not every man has an obligation to mingle in the affairs of the world. There 
are some who are developed to such a degree that they are justified in letting 
the world go its own way and refusing to enter public life with a view to 
reforming it. But this does not imply a right to remain idle or to sit back and 
merely criticize. Such withdrawal is justified only when we strive to realize 
in ourselves the higher aims of mankind. For although the sage remains 
distant from the turmoil of daily life, he creates incomparable human values 
for the future. 

	19. Lin / Approach


The Chinese word lin has a range of meanings that is not exhausted by any 
single word of another language. The ancient explanations in the Book of 
Changes give as its first meaning, "becoming great." What becomes great are 
the two strong lines growing into the hexagram from below; the light-giving 
power expands with them. The meaning is then further extended to include 
the concept of approach, especially the approach of what is lower. Finally the 
meaning includes the attitude of condescension of a man in high position 
toward the people, and in general the setting to work on affairs. This 
hexagram is linked with the twelfth month (January-February), when after 
the winter solstice, the light power begins to ascend again.

	APPROACH has supreme success.
	Perseverance furthers.
	When the eighth month comes,
	There will be misfortune.

The hexagram as a whole points to a time of joyous, hopeful progress. Spring 
is approaching. Joy and forbearance bring high and low nearer together. 
Success is certain. But we must work with determination and perseverance 
to make full use of the propitiousness of the time. And on thing more: 
spring does not last forever. In the eighth month the aspects are reversed. 
Then only two strong, light lines are left; these do not advance but are in 
retreat (see next hexagram). We must take heed of this change in good time. 
If we meet evil before it becomes reality-before it has even begun to stir-we 
can master it.


	The earth above the lake:
	The image of APPROACH.
	Thus the superior man is inexhaustible
	In his will to teach,
	And without limits
	In his tolerance and protection of the people.

The earth borders upon the lake from above. This symbolizes the approach 
and condescension of the man of higher position to those beneath him. The 
two parts of the image indicate what his attitude toward these people will be. 
Just as the lake is inexhaustible in depth, so the sage is inexhaustible in his 
readiness to teach mankind, and just as the earth is boundlessly wide, 
sustaining and caring for all creatures on it, so the sage sustains and cares for 
all people and excludes no part of humanity.


	° Nine at the beginning means:
	Joint approach.
	Perseverance brings good fortune.

The good begins to prevail and to find response in influential circles. This in 
turn is an incentive to men of ability. IT is well to join this upward trend, but 
we must not let ourselves be carried away by the current of the time; we must 
adhere perseveringly to what is right. This bring good fortune.

	° Nine in the second place means:
	Joint approach.
	Good fortune.
	Everything furthers.

When the stimulus to approach comes from a high place, and when a man 
has the inner strength and consistency that need no admonition, good 
fortune will ensue. Nor need the future cause any concern. He is well aware 
that everything earthly is transitory, and that a descent follows upon every 
rise, but need not be confused by this universal law of fate. Everything serves 
to further. Therefore he will travel the paths of life swiftly, honestly, and 

	Six in the third place means:
	Comfortable approach.
	Nothing that would further.
	If one is induced to grieve over it,
	One becomes free of blame.

Things are going well for a man: he achieves power and influence. But in 
this lies the danger that he may relax, and confident of his position, allow the 
easygoing, careless mood to show itself in his dealings with other people. 
This would inevitably be harmful. But there is possibility of a change of 
mood. If he regrets his mistaken attitude and feels the responsibility of an 
influential position, he frees himself of faults.

	Six in the fourth place means:
	Complete approach.
	No blame.
While the three lower lines indicate rise to power and influence, the three 
upper lines show the attitude of persons in higher position toward those of 
lower rank for whom they procure influence. Here is shown the open-
minded approach of a person of high rank to a man of ability whom he draws 
in to his own circle, regardless of class prejudice. This is very favorable. 	 

	Six in the fifth place means:
	Wise approach.
	This is right for a great prince.
	Good fortune.

A prince, or anyone in a leading position, must have the wisdom to attract to 
himself people of ability who are expert in directing affairs. His wisdom 
consists both in selecting the right people and in allowing those chosen to 
have a free hand without interference from him.  For only through such self-
restraint will he find the experts needed to satisfy all of his requirements.

	Six at the top means:
	Great hearted approach.
	Good-hearted approach.
	Good fortune. No blame.

A sage who has put the world behind him and who in spirit has already 
withdrawn from life may, under certain circumstances, decide to return once 
more to the here and now and to approach other men. This means great 
good fortune for the men whom he teaches and helps. And for him this great 
hearted humbling of himself is blameless.

	20. Guan / Contemplation (View)


A slight variation of tonal stress gives the Chinese name for this hexagram a 
double meaning.  It means both contemplating and being seen, in the sense 
of being an example. These ideas are suggested by the fact that the hexagram 
can be understood as picturing a type of tower characteristic of ancient China.

A tower of this kind commanded a wide view of the country; at the same 
time, when situated on a mountain, it became a landmark that could be seen 
for miles around. Thus the hexagram shows a ruler who contemplates the 
law of heaven above him and the ways of the people below, and who, by 
means of good government, sets a lofty example to the masses.
  This hexagram is linked with the eight month (September-October). The 
light-giving power retreats and the dark power is again on the increase. 
However, this aspect is not material in the interpretation of the hexagram as a 


	CONTEMPLATION. The ablution has been made, 
	But not yet the offering.
	Full of trust they look up to him.

The sacrificial ritual in China began with an ablution and a libation by which 
the Deity was invoked, after which the sacrifice was offered. The moment of 
time between these two ceremonies is the most sacred of all, the moment of 
deepest inner concentration. If piety is sincere and expressive of real faith, the 
contemplation of it has a transforming awe-spiring effect on those who 
witness it.
  Thus also in nature a holy seriousness is to be seen in the fact that natural 
occurrences are uniformly subject to law. Contemplation of the divine 
meaning underlying the workings of the universe gives to the man who is 
called upon to influence others the means of producing like effects. This 
requires that power of inner concentration which religious contemplation 
develops in great men strong in faith. It enables them to apprehend the 
mysterious and divine laws of life, and by means of profoundest inner 
concentration they give expression to these laws in their own persons. Thus 
a hidden spiritual power emanates from them, influencing and dominating 
others without their being aware of how it happens. 


	The wind blows over the earth:
	The image of CONTEMPLATION.
	Thus the kings of old visited the regions of the world,
	Contemplated the people,
	And gave them instruction.

When the wind blows over the earth it goes far and wide, and the grass must 
bend to its power. These two occurrences find confirmation in the hexagram. 
The two images are used to symbolize a practice of the kings of old; in making 
regular journeys the ruler could, in the first place, survey his realm and make 
certain that none of the existing usages of the people escaped notice; in the 
second, he could exert influence through which such customs as were 
unsuitable could be changed.
  All of this points to the power possessed by a superior personality. On the 
one hand, such a man will have a view of the real sentiments of the great 
mass of humanity and therefore cannot be deceived; on the other, he will 
impress the people so profoundly, by his mere existence and by the impact of 
his personality, that they will be swayed by him as the grass by the wind.


	Six at the beginning means:
	Boy like contemplation.
	For an inferior man, no blame.
	For a superior man, humiliation.

This means contemplation from a distance, without comprehension. A man 
of influence is at hand, abut his influence is not understood by the common 
people. This matters little in the case of the masses, for they benefit by the 
actions of the ruling sage whether they understand them or not. But for a 
superior man it is a disgrace. He must not content himself with a shallow, 
thoughtless view of prevailing forces; he must contemplate them as a 
connected whole and try to understand them.

	Six in the second place means:
	Contemplation through the crack of the door.
	Furthering for the perseverance of a woman.

Through the crack of the door one has a limited outlook; one looks outward 
from within. Contemplation is subjectively limited. One tends to relate 
everything to oneself and cannot put oneself in another's place and 
understand his motives. This is appropriate for a good housewife. It is not 
necessary for her to be conversant with the affairs of the world. But for a man 
who must take active part in public life, such a narrow, egotistic way of 
contemplating things is of course harmful.

	Six in the third place means:
	Contemplation of my life 
	Decides the choice
	Between advance and retreat.

This is the place of transition. We no longer look outward to receive pictures 
that are more or less limited and confused, but direct out contemplation upon 
ourselves in order to find a guideline for our decisions. This self-
contemplation means the overcoming of naive egotism in the person who 
sees everything solely form his own standpoint. He begins to reflect and in 
this way acquires objectivity. However, self-knowledge does not mean 
preoccupation with one's own thoughts; rather, it means concern about the 
effects one creates. It is only the effects our lives produce that give us the 
right to judge whether what we have done means progress or regression.
	Six in the fourth place means:
	Contemplation of the light of the kingdom.
	It furthers one to exert influence as the guest of a king.

This describes a man who understands the secrets by which a kingdom can be 
made to flourish. Such a man must be given an authoritative position, in 
which he can exert influence. He should be, so to speak, a guest-that is, he 
should be honored and act independently, and should not be used as a tool.

	° Nine at the top means:
	Contemplation of his life.
	The superior man is without blame.

While the preceding line represents a man who contemplates himself, here 
in the highest place everything that is personal, related to the ego, is excluded. 
The picture is that of a sage who stands outside the affairs of the world. 
Liberated from his ego, he contemplates the laws of life and so realizes that 
knowing how to become free of blame is the highest good.

	21.  Shihe / Biting Through


This hexagram represents an open mouth (cf. hexagram 27) with an 
obstruction (in the fourth place) between the teeth. As a result the lips cannot 
meet. To bring them together one must bite energetically through the 
obstacle. Since the hexagram is made up of the trigrams for thunder and for 
lightning, it indicates how obstacles are forcibly removed in nature.  
Energetic biting through overcomes the obstacle that prevents joining of the 
lips; the storm with its thunder and lightning overcomes the disturbing 
tension in nature. Recourse to law and penalties overcomes the disturbances 
of harmonious social life caused by criminals and slanderers. The theme of 
this hexagram is a criminal lawsuit, in contradistinction to that of Sung, 
CONFLICT (6), which refers to civil suits.


	BITING THROUGH has success.
	It is favorable to let justice be administered.

When an obstacle to union arises, energetic biting through brings success. 
This is true in all situations. Whenever unity cannot be established, the 
obstruction is due to a talebearer and traitor who is interfering and blocking 
the way. To prevent permanent injury, vigorous measures must be taken at 
once. Deliberate obstruction of this sort does not vanish of its own accord. 
Judgment and punishment are required to deter or obviate it.
  However, it is important to proceed in the right way. The hexagram 
combines Li, clarity, and Chên, excitement. Li is yielding, Chên is hard. 
Unqualified hardness and excitement would be too violent in meting out 
punishment; unqualified clarity and gentleness would be too weak. The two 
together create the just measure. It is of moment that the man who makes 
the decisions (represented by the fifth line) is gentle by nature, while he 
commands respect by his conduct in his position.


	Thunder and lighting:
	The image of BITING THROUGH.
	Thus the kings of former times made firm the laws
	Through clearly defined penalties.
Penalties are the individual applications of the law. The laws
specify the penalties. Clarity prevails when mild and severe
penalties are differentiated, according to the nature of the crimes.
This is symbolized by the clarity of lighting. The law is strengthened
by a just application of penalties. This is symbolized by the terror
of thunder. This clarity and severity have the effect of instilling
respect; it is not that the penalties are ends in themselves.
The obstructions in the social life of man increase when there is a
lack of clarity in the penal codes and slackness in executing them.
The only to strengthen the law is to make it clear and make penalties
certain and swift.


	Nine at the beginning means:
	His feet are fastened in the stocks,
	So that his toes disappear.
	No blame.

If a sentence is imposed the first time a man attempts to do wrong, the 
penalty is a mild one.  Only the toes are put in the stocks.  This prevents him 
from sinning further and thus he becomes free of blame.  It is a warning to 
halt in time on the path of evil.

	Six  in the second place means:
	Bites through tender meat,
	So that his nose disappears.
	No blame.

It is easy to discriminate between right and wrong in this case;
it is like biting through tender meat. But one encounters a
hardened sinner, and, aroused by anger, one goes a little too
far. The disappearance of the nose in the course of the bite
signifies that indignation blots out finer sensibility. However,
there is no great harm in this, because the penalty as such is
	Six  in the third place means:
	Bites on old dried meat 
	And strikes on something poisonous.
	Slight humiliation.  No blame.

Punishment is to be carried out by someone who lacks the power and 
authority to do so.  Therefore the culprits do not submit.  The matter at issue 
is an old one-as symbolized by salted game-and in dealing with it difficulties 
arise.  This old meat is spoiled: by taking up the problem the punisher arouses 
poisonous hatred against himself, and n this way is put in a somewhat 
humiliating position.  But since punishment was required by the time, he 
remains free of blame.
	Nine in the fourth place means:
	Bites on dried gristly meat.
	Receives metal arrows.
	It furthers one to be mindful of difficulties
	And to be persevering.
	Good fortune. 

There are great obstacles to be overcome, powerful opponents are to be 
punished. Though this is arduous, the effort succeeds. But it is necessary to 
be hard as metal and straight as an arrow to surmount the difficulties. If one 
knows these difficulties and remains persevering, he attains good fortune. 
The difficult task is achieved in the end.

	° Six in the fifth place means:
	Bites on dried lean meat.
	Receives yellow gold.
	Perseveringly aware of danger.
	No blame.

The case to be decided is indeed not easy but perfectly clear.  Since we 
naturally incline to leniency, we must make every effort to be like yellow 
gold-that is, as true as gold and as impartial as yellow, the color of the middle 
[the mean]. It is only by remaining conscious of the dangers growing out of 
the responsibility we have assumed that we can avoid making mistakes.

	Nine at the top means:
	His neck is fastened in the wooden cangue,
	So that his ears disappear.

In contrast to the first line, this line refers to a man who is incorrigible. His 
punishment is the wooden cangue, and his ears disappear under it-that is to 
say, he is deaf to warnings. This obstinacy leads to misfortune.

	22. Bi / Grace


This hexagram shows a fire that breaks out of the secret depths of the earth 
and, blazing up, illuminates and beautifies the mountain, the heavenly 
heights. Grace-beauty of form-is necessary in any union if it is to be well 
ordered and pleasing rather than disordered and chaotic.


	GRACE has success.
	In small matters
	It is favorable to undertake something.

Grace brings success. However, it is not the essential or fundamental thing; it 
is only the ornament and therefore be used sparingly and only in little things. 
In the lower trigram of fire a yielding line comes between two strong lines 
and makes them beautiful, but the strong lines are the essential content and 
the weak line is the beautifying form. In the upper trigram of the mountain, 
the strong line takes the lead, so that here again the strong element must be 
regarded as the decisive factor. In nature we see in the sky the strong light of 
the sun; the life of the world depends on it. But this strong, essential thing is 
changed and given pleasing variety by the moon and the stars. In human 
affairs, aesthetic form comes into being when traditions exist that, strong and 
abiding like mountains, are made pleasing by a lucid beauty. By 
contemplating the forms existing in the heavens we come to understand time 
and its changing demands. Through contemplation of the forms existing in 
human society it becomes possible to shape the world.


	Fire at the foot of the mountain:
	The image of GRACE.
	Thus does the superior man proceed 
	When clearing up current affairs.
	But he dare not decide controversial issues in this way.

The fire, whose light illuminates the mountain and makes it pleasing, does 
not shine far; in the same way, beautiful form suffices to brighten and to 
throw light upon matters of lesser moment, but important questions cannot 
be decided in this way. They require greater earnestness.

	Nine at the beginning means:
	He lends grace to his toes, leaves the carriage, and walks.

A beginner in subordinate place must take upon himself the labor of 
advancing. There might be an opportunity of surreptitiously easing the way-
symbolized by the carriage-but a self-contained man scorns help gained in a 
dubious fashion. He thinks it more graceful to go on foot than to drive in a 
carriage under false pretenses.

	° Six in the second place means:
	Lends grace to the beard on his chin.

The beard is not an independent thing; it moves only with the chin. The 
image therefore means that form is to be considered only as a result and 
attribute of content. The beard is a superfluous ornament. To devote care to it 
for its own sake, without regard for the inner content of which it is an 
ornament, would bespeak a certain vanity.

	Nine in the third place means:
	Graceful and moist.
	Constant perseverance brings good fortune.

This represents a very charming life situation. One is under the spell of grace 
and the mellow mood induced by wine. This grace can adorn, but it can also 
swamp us. Hence the warning not to sink into convivial indolence but to 
remain constant in perseverance. Good fortune depends on this.

	Six in the fourth place means:
	Grace or simplicity?
	A white horse comes as if on wings.
	He is not a robber,
	He will woo at the right time.

An individual is in a situation in which doubts arise as to which is better-to 
pursue the grace of external brilliance, or to return to simplicity. The doubt 
itself implies the answer. Confirmation comes from the outside; it comes like 
a white winged horse. The white color indicates simplicity. At first it may be 
disappointing to renounce the comforts that might have been obtained, yet 
one finds peace of mind in a true relationship with the friend who courts 
him. The winged horse is the symbol of the thoughts that transcend all limits 
of space and time.

	Six in the fifth place means:
	Grace in the hills and gardens.
	The roll of silk is meager and small.
	Humiliation, but in the end good fortune.

A man withdraws from contact with people of the lowlands, who seek 
nothing but magnificence and luxury, in to the solitude of the heights. There 
he finds an individual to look up to, whom he would like to have as a friend. 
But the gifts he has to offer are poor and few, so that he feels ashamed. 
However, it is not the material gifts that count, but sincerity of feeling, and so 
all goes well in the end.

	° Nine at the top means:
	Simple grace. No blame.

Here at the highest stage of development all ornament is discarded. Form no 
longer conceals content but brings out its value to the full. Perfect grace 
consists not in exterior ornamentation of the substance, but in the simple 
fitness of its form.

	23. Bo / Splitting Apart


The dark lines are about to mount upward and overthrow the last firm, light 
line by exerting a disintegrating influence on it. The inferior, dark forces 
overcome what is superior and strong, not by direct means, but by 
undermining it gradually and imperceptibly, so that it finally collapses.
  The lines of the hexagram present the image of a house, the top line being 
the roof, and because the roof is being shattered the house collapses. The 
hexagram belongs to the ninth month (October-November). The yin power 
pushes up ever more powerfully and is about to supplant the yang power 


	SPLITTING APART. IT does not further one 
	To go anywhere.

This pictures a time when inferior people are pushing forward and are about 
to crowd out the few remaining strong and superior men. Under these 
circumstances, which are due to the time, it is not favorable for the superior 
man to undertake anything.
  The right behavior in such adverse times is to be deduced from the images 
and their attributes. The lower trigram stands for the earth, whose attributes. 
The lower trigram stands for the earth, whose attributes are docility and 
devotion. The upper trigram stands for the mountain, whose attribute is 
stillness. This suggests that one should submit to the bad time and remain 
quiet. For it is a question not of man's doing but of time conditions, which, 
according to the laws of heaven, show an alternation of increase and decrease, 
fullness and emptiness. It is impossible to counteract these conditions of the 
time. Hence it is not cowardice but wisdom to submit and avoid action.


	The mountain rests on the earth:
	The image of SPLITTING APART.
	Thus those above can ensure their position
	Only by giving generously to those below.

The mountain rests on the earth. When it is steep and narrow, lacking a 
broad base, it must topple over. Its position is strong only when it rises out of 
the earth broad and great, not proud and steep. So likewise those who rule 
rest on the broad foundation of the people. They too should be generous and 
benevolent, like the earth that carries all. Then they will make their position 
as secure as a mountain is in its tranquillity. 


	Six at the beginning means:
	The leg of the bed is split.
	Those who persevere are destroyed.

Inferior people are on the rise and stealthily begin their destructive 
burrowing from below in order to undermine the place where the superior 
man rests. Those followers of the ruler who remain loyal are destroyed by 
slander and intrigue. The situation bodes disaster, yet there is nothing to do 
but wait.

	Six in the second place means:
	The bed is split at the edge.
	Those who persevere are destroyed.

The power of the inferior people is growing. The danger draws close to one's 
person; already there are clear indication, and rest is disturbed. Moreover, in 
this dangerous situation one is as yet without help or friendly advances from 
above or below. Extreme caution is necessary in this isolation. One must 
adjust to the time and promptly avoid the danger. Stubborn perseverance in 
maintaining one's standpoint would lead to downfall.

	Six in the third place means:
	He splits with them. No blame.

An individual finds himself in an evil environment to which he is 
committed by external ties. But he has an inner relationship with a superior 
man, and through this he attains the stability to free himself from the way of 
the inferior people around him. This brings him into opposition to them of 
course, but that is not wrong.

	Six in the fourth place means:
	The bed is split up to the skin.

Here the disaster affects not only the resting place but even the occupant. No 
warning or other comment is added. Misfortune has reached its peak: it can 
no longer be warded off.

	Six in the fifth place means:
	A shoal of fishes. Favor comes through the court ladies.
	Everything acts to further.

Here, in immediate proximity to the strong, light-giving principle at the top, 
the nature of the dark force undergoes a change. It no longer opposes the 
strong principle by means of intrigues but submits to its guidance. Indeed, as 
the head of the other weak lines, it leads all of these to the strong line, just as 
a princess leads her maids-in-waiting like a shoal of fishes to her husband and 
thus gains his favor. Inasmuch as the lower element thus voluntarily places 
itself under the higher, it attains happiness and the higher also receives its 
due. Therefore all goes well.

	° Nine at the top means:
	There is a large fruit still uneaten.
	The superior man receives a carriage.
	The house of the inferior man is split apart.

Here the splitting apart reaches its end. When misfortune has spent itself, 
better times return. The seed of the good remains, and it is just when the 
fruit falls to the ground that food sprouts anew from its seed. The superior 
man again attains influence and effectiveness. He is supported by public 
opinion as if in a carriage. But the inferior man's wickedness is visited upon 
himself. His house is split apart. A law of nature is at work here. Evil is not 
destructive to the good alone but inevitably destroys itself as well. For evil, 
which lives solely by negation, cannot continue to exist on its own strength 
alone. The inferior man himself fares best when held under control by a 
superior man. 

	24. Fu / Return (The Turning Point)


The idea of a turning point arises from the fact that after the dark lines have 
pushed all of the light lines upward and out of the hexagram, another light 
line enters the hexagram from below. The time of darkness is past. The 
winter solstice brings the victory of light. This hexagram is linked with the 
eleventh month, the month of the solstice (December-January).


	RETURN. Success.
	Going out and coming in without error.
	Friends come without blame.
	To and fro goes the way.
	On the seventh day comes return.
	It furthers one to have somewhere to go.

After a time of decay comes the turning point. The powerful light that has 
been banished returns. There is movement, but it is not brought about by 
force. The upper trigram K'un is characterized by devotion; thus the 
movement is natural, arising spontaneously. For this reason the 
transformation of the old becomes easy. The old is discarded and the new is 
introduced. Both measures accord with the time; therefore no harm results. 
Societies of people sharing the same views are formed. But since these 
groups come together in full public knowledge and are in harmony with the 
time, all selfish separatist tendencies are excluded, and no mistake is made. 
The idea of RETURN is based on the course of nature. The movement is 
cyclic, and the course completes itself. Therefore it is not necessary to hasten 
anything artificially. Everything comes of itself at the appointed time. This is 
the meaning of heaven and earth. 
  All movements are accomplished in six stages, and the seventh brings 
return. Thus the winter solstice, with which the decline of the year begins, 
comes in the seventh month after the summer solstice; so too sunrise comes 
in the seventh double hour after sunset. Therefore seven is the number of 
the young light, and it arises when six, the number of the great darkness, is 
increased by one. In this way the state of rest gives place to movement.


	Thunder within the earth:
	The image of THE TURNING POINT.	
	Thus the kings of antiquity closed the passes 
	At the time of solstice.
	Merchants and strangers did not go about,
	And the ruler
	Did not travel through the provinces.

The winter solstice has always been celebrated in China as the resting time of 
the year--a custom that survives in the time of rest observed at the new year. 
In winter the life energy, symbolized by thunder, the Arousing, is still 
underground. Movement is just at its beginning; therefore it must be 
strengthened by rest so that it will not be dissipated by being used 
prematurely. This principle, i.e., of allowing energy that is renewing itself to 
be reinforced by rest, applies to all similar situations. The return of health 
after illness, the return of understanding after an estrangement: everything 
must be treated tenderly and with care at the beginning, so that the return 
may lead to a flowering.


	° Nine at the beginning means:
	Return from a short distance.
	No need for remorse.
	Great good fortune.

Slight digressions from the good cannot be avoided, but one must turn back 
in time, before going too far. This is especially important in the development 
of character; every faintly evil thought must be put aside immediately, before 
it goes too far and takes root in the mind. Then there is no cause for remorse, 
and all goes well.

	Six in the second place means:
	Quiet return. Good fortune.

Return always calls for a decision and is an act of self-mastery. It is made 
easier if a man is in good company. If he can bring himself to put aside pride 
and follow the example of good men, good fortune results.

	Six in the third place means:
	Repeated return. Danger. No blame.

There are people of a certain inner instability who feel a constant urge to 
reverse themselves. There is danger in continually deserting the good 
because of uncontrolled desires, then turning back to it again because of a 
better resolution. However, since this does not lead to habituation in evil, a 
general inclination to overcome the defect is not wholly excluded/

	Six in the fourth place means:
	Walking in the midst of others,
	One returns alone.

A man is in a society composed of inferior people, but is connected spiritually 
with a strong and good friend, and this makes him turn back alone. 
Although nothing is said of reward and punishment, this return is certainly 
favorable, for such a resolve to choose the good brings its own reward. 	
	Six in the fifth place means:
	Noblehearted return. No remorse.

When the time for return has come, a man should not take shelter in trivial 
excuses, but should look within and examine himself. And if he has done 
something wrong he should make a noblehearted resolve to confess his fault. 
No one will regret having taken this road.

	Six at the top means:
	Missing the return. Misfortune.
	Misfortune from within and without.
	If armies are set marching in this way,
	One will in the end suffer a great defeat, 
	Disastrous for the ruler of the country.
	For ten years
	It will not be possible to attack again.

If a man misses the right time for return, he meets with misfortune. The 
misfortune has its inner cause in a wrong attitude toward the world. The 
misfortune coming upon him for without results from this wrong attitude. 
What is pictured here is blind obstinacy and the judgment that is visited 
upon it.

	25. Wuwang / Innocence (The Unexpected)


Ch'ien, heaven is above; Chên, movement, is below. The lower trigram 
Chên is under the influence of the strong line it has received form above, 
from heaven. When, in accord with this, movement follows the law of 
heaven, man is innocent and without guile. His mind is natural and true, 
unshadowed by reflection or ulterior designs. For wherever conscious 
purpose is to be seen, there the truth and innocence of nature have been lost. 
Nature that is not directed by the spirit is not true but degenerate nature. 
Starting out with the idea of the natural, the train of thought in part goes 
somewhat further and thus the hexagram includes also the idea of the 
fundamental or unexpected.


	INNOCENCE. Supreme success.
	Perseverance furthers.
	If someone is not as he should be,
	He has misfortune,
	And it does not further him
	To undertake anything.

Man has received from heaven a nature innately good, to guide him in all his 
movements. By devotion to this divine spirit within himself, he attains an 
unsullied innocence that leads him to do right with instinctive sureness and 
without any ulterior thought of reward and personal advantage. This 
instinctive certainty brings about supreme success and 'furthers through 
perseverance". However, not everything instinctive is nature in this higher 
sense of the word, but only that which is right and in accord with the will of 
heaven. Without this quality of rightness, an unreflecting, instinctive way of 
acting brings only misfortune. Confucius says about this: "He who departs 
from innocence, what does he come to? Heaven's will and blessing do not go 
with his deeds."


	Under heaven thunder rolls:
	All things attain the natural state of innocence.
	Thus the kings of old,
	Rich in virtue, and in harmony with the time,
	Fostered and nourished all beings.

In springtime when thunder, life energy, begins to move again under the 
heavens, everything sprouts and grows, and all beings receive for the creative 
activity of nature the childlike innocence of their original state. So it is with 
the good rulers of mankind: drawing on the spiritual wealth at their 
command, they take care of all forms of life and all forms of culture and do 
everything to further them, and at the proper time.


	° Nine at the beginning means:
	Innocent behavior brings good fortune.

The original impulses of the heart are always good, so that we may follow 
them confidently, assured of good fortune and achievement of our aims.

	Six in the second place means:
	If one does not count on the harvest while plowing,
	Nor on the use of the ground while clearing it,
	It furthers one to undertake something.

We should do every task for its own sake as time and place demand and not 
with an eye to the result. Then each task turns out well, and anything we 
undertake succeeds.

	Six in the third place means:
	Undeserved misfortune.
	The cow that was tethered by someone
	Is the wanderer's gain, the citizen's loss.

Sometimes undeserved misfortune befalls a man at the hands of another, as 
for instance when someone passes by and takes a tethered cow along with 
him. His gain is the owner's loss. In all transactions, no matter how 
innocent, we must accommodate ourselves to the demands of the time, 
otherwise unexpected misfortune overtakes us.

	Nine in the fourth place means:
	He who can be persevering 
	Remains without blame.
We cannot lose what really belongs to us, even if we throw it away. 
Therefore we need have no anxiety. All that need concern us is that we 
should remain true to our own natures and not listen to others.

	° Nine in the fifth place means:
	Use no medicine in an illness
	Incurred through no fault of your own.
	It will pass of itself.

An unexpected evil may come accidentally from without. If it does not 
originate in one's own nature or have a foothold there, one should not resort 
to external means to eradicate it, but should quietly let nature take its course. 
Then improvement will come of itself.

	Nine at the top means:
	Innocent action brings misfortune.
	Nothing furthers.

When, in a given situation, the time is not ripe for further progress, the best 
thing to do is to wait quietly, without ulterior designs. If one acts 
thoughtlessly and tries to push ahead in opposition to fate, success will not be 

	26. Dachu / The Taming Power of the Great


The Creative is tamed by Kên, Keeping Still.  This produces great power, a 
situation in contrast to that of the ninth hexagram, Hsiao Ch'u, THE 
TAMING POWER OF THE SMALL, in which the Creative is tamed by the 
Gentle alone. There one weak line must tame five strong lines, but here four 
strong lines are restrained by two weak lines; in addition to a minister, there 
is a prince, and the restraining power therefore is afar stronger.
  The hexagram has a threefold meaning, expressing different aspects of the 
concept "Holding firm." Heaven within the mountain gives the idea of 
holding firm in the sense of holding together; the trigram Kên which holds 
the trigram ch'ien still, gives the idea of holding firm in the sense of holding 
back; the third idea is that of holding firm in the sense of caring for and 
nourishing. This last is suggested by the fact that a strong line at the top, 
which is the ruler of the hexagram, is honored and tended as a sage. The third 
of these meanings also attaches specifically to this strong line at the top, 
which represents the sage.


	Perseverance furthers.
	Not eating at home brings good fortune.
	It furthers one to cross the great water.

To hold firmly to great creative powers and store them up, as set forth in this 
hexagram, there is need of a strong, clear-headed man who is honored by the 
ruler. The trigram Ch'ein points to strong creative power; Kên indicates 
firmness and truth. Both point to light and clarity and to the daily renewal of 
character. Only through such daily self-renewal can a man continue at the 
height of his powers. Force of habit helps to keep order in quiet times; but in 
periods when there is a great storing up of energy, everything depends on the 
power of the personality. However, since the worthy are honored, as in the 
case of the strong personality entrusted with leadership by the ruler, it is an 
advantage not to eat at home but rather to earn one's bread by entering upon 
public office. Such a man is in harmony with heaven; therefore even great 
and difficult undertakings, such as crossing the great water, succeed.


	Heaven within the mountain:
	Thus the superior man acquaints himself with many sayings of antiquity
	And many deeds of the past,
	In order to strengthen his character thereby.

Heaven within the mountain points to hidden treasures. In the words and 
deeds of the past there lies hidden a treasure that men may use to strengthen 
and elevate their own characters. The way to study the past is not to confine 
oneself to mere knowledge of history but, through application of this 
knowledge, to give actuality to the past.


	Nine at the beginning means:
	Danger is at hand. It furthers one to desist.

A man wishes to make vigorous advance, but circumstances present an 
obstacle. He sees himself held back firmly. If he should attempt to fore an 
advance, it would lead him into misfortune. Therefore it is better for him to 
compose himself and to wait until an outlet is offered for release of his 
stored-up energies.

	Nine in the second place means:
	The axletrees are taken from the wagon.

Here advance is checked just as in the third line of THE TAMING POWER OF 
THE SMALL (9). However, in the later the restraining force is slight; thus a 
conflict arises between the propulsive and the restraining movement, as a 
result of which the spokes fall out of the wagon wheels, while here the 
restraining force is absolutely superior; hence no struggle takes place. One 
submits and removes the axletrees from the wagon -in other words, contents 
himself with waiting. In this way energy accumulates for a vigorous advance 
later on.

	Nine in the third place means.
	A good horse that follows others.
	Awareness of danger,
	With perseverance, furthers.
	Practice chariot driving and armed defense daily. 
	It furthers one to have somewhere to go.

The way opens; the hindrance has been cleared away. A man is in contact 
with a strong will acting in the same direction as his own, and goes forward 
like one good horse following another. But danger still threatens, and he 
must remain aware of it, or he will be robbed of his firmness. Thus he must 
acquire skill on the one hand in what will take him forward, and on the other 
in what will protect him against unforeseen attacks. It is good in such a pass 
to have a goal toward which to strive.

	Six in the fourth place means:
	The headboard of a young bull.
	Great good fortune.

This line and the one following it are the two that tame the forward-pushing 
lower lines. Before a bull's horns grow out, a headboard is fastened to its 
forehead, so that later when the horns appear they cannot do harm. A good 
way to restrain wild force is to forestall it. By so doing one achieves an easy 
and great success.

	° Six in the fifth place means:
	The tusk of a gelded boar.
	Good fortune.

Here the restraining of the impetuous forward drive is achieved in an 
indirect way. A boar's tusk is in itself dangerous, but if the boar's nature is 
altered, the tusk is no longer a menace. Thus also where men are concerned, 
wild force should not be combated directly; instead, its roots should be eradicated.

	° Nine at the top means:
	One attains the way of heaven.

The time of obstruction is past. The energy long dammed up by inhibition 
forces its way out and achieves great success. This refers to a man who is 
honored by the ruler and whose principles now prevail and shape the world. 

	27. Yi / Corners of the Mouth (Providing Nourishment)


This hexagram is a picture of an open mouth; above and below are firm lines 
of the lips, and between them the opening. Starting with the mouth, through 
which we take food for nourishment, the thought leads to nourishment 
itself. Nourishment of oneself, specifically of the body, is represented in the 
three lower lines, while the three upper lines represent nourishment and 
care of others, in a higher, spiritual sense.


	Perseverance brings good fortune.
	Pay heed to the providing of nourishment
	And to what a man seeks
	To fill his own mouth with.

In bestowing care and nourishment, it is important that the right people 
should be taken care of and that we should attend to our own nourishment 
in the right way. If we wish to know what anyone is like, we have only to 
observe on whom he bestows his care and what sides of his own nature he 
cultivates and nourishes. Nature nourishes all creatures. The great man 
fosters and takes care of superior men, in order to take care of all men 
through them. Mencius says about this:

If we wish to know whether anyone is superior or not, we need only observe 
what part of his being he regards as especially important. The body has 
superior and inferior, important and unimportant parts. We must not injure 
important parts for the sake of the unimportant, nor must we injure the 
superior parts for the sake of the inferior. He who cultivates the inferior parts 
of his nature is an inferior man. He who cultivates the superior parts of his 
nature is a superior man.

	At the foot of the mountain, thunder:
	Thus the superior man is careful of his words
	And temperate in eating and drinking.

"God comes forth in the sign of the Arousing": when in the spring the life 
forces stir again, all things comes into being anew. "He brings to perfection in 
the sign of Keeping Still": thus in the early spring, when the seeds fall to 
earth, all things are made ready. This is an image of providing nourishment 
through movement and tranquillity.  The superior man takes it as a pattern 
for the nourishment and cultivation of his character. Words are a movement 
going form within outward. Eating and drinking are movements from 
without inward. Both kinds of movement can be modified by tranquillity. 
For tranquillity keeps the words that come out of the mouth from exceeding 
proper measure, and keeps the food that goes into the mouth from exceeding 
its proper measure. Thus character is cultivated.


	Nine at the beginning means:
	You let your magic tortoise go,
	And look at me with the corners of your mouth drooping.

The magic tortoise is a creature possessed of such supernatural powers that it 
lives on air and needs no earthly nourishment. The image means that a man 
fitted by nature and position to live freely and independently renounces this 
self-reliance and instead looks with envy and discontent at others who are 
outwardly in better circumstances. But such base envy only arouses derision 
and contempt in those others. This has bad results.

	Six in the second place means:
	Turning to the summit for nourishment,
	Deviating from the path
	To seek nourishment from the hill.
	Continuing to do this brings misfortune.

Normally a person either provides his own means of nourishment or is 
supported in a proper way by those whose duty of privilege it is to provide for 
him. If, owing to weakness of spirit, a man cannot support himself, a feeling 
of uneasiness comes over him; this is because in shirking the proper way of 
obtaining a living, he accepts support as a favor from those in higher place. 
This is unworthy, for he is deviating from his true nature. Kept up 
indefinitely, this course leads to misfortune.

	Six in the third place means:
	Turning away from nourishment.
	Perseverance brings misfortune.
	Do not act thus for ten years.
	Nothing serves to further.
He who seeks nourishment that does not nourish reels from desire to 
gratification and in gratification craves desire. Mad pursuit of pleasure for the 
satisfaction of the senses never brings one to the goal. One should never (ten 
years is a complete cycle of time) follow this path, for nothing good can come 
of it.

	Six in the fourth place means:
	Turning to the summit
	For provision of nourishment
	Brings good fortune.
	Spying about with sharp eyes
	Like a tiger with insatiable craving.
	No blame.

In contrast to the six in the second place, which refers to a man bent 
exclusively on his own advantage, this line refers to one occupying a high 
position and striving to let his light sine forth. To do this he needs helpers, 
because he cannot attain his lofty aim alone. With the greed of a hungry tiger 
he is on the lookout for the right people. Since he is not working for himself 
but for the good of all, there is no wrong in such zeal.

	° Six in the fifth place means:
	Turning away from the path.
	To remain persevering brings good fortune.
	One should not cross the great water.

A man may be conscious of a deficiency in himself. He should be 
undertaking the nourishment of the people, but he has not the strength to do 
it. Thus he must turn from his accustomed path and beg counsel and help 
from a man who is spiritually his superior but undistinguished outwardly. If 
he maintains this attitude of mind perseveringly, success and good fortune 
are his. But he must remain aware of his dependence. He must not put his 
own person forward nor attempt great labors, such as crossing the great water.

	° Nine at the top means:
	The source of nourishment.
	Awareness of danger brings good fortune.
	It furthers one to cross the great water.

This describes a sage of the highest order, from whom emanate all influences 
that provide nourishment for others. Such a position brings with it heavy 
responsibility. If he remains conscious of this fact, he has good fortune and 
may confidently undertake even great and difficult labors, such as crossing 
the great water. These undertakings bring general happiness for him and for 
all others.

	28. Daguo / Preponderance of the Great


This hexagram consists of four strong lines inside and two weak lines outside. 
When the strong are outside and the weak inside, all is well and there is 
nothing out of balance, nothing extraordinary in the situation. Here, 
however, the opposite is the case. The hexagram represents a beam that is 
thick and heavy in the middle but too weak at the ends. This is a condition 
that cannot last; it must be changed, must pass, or misfortune will result.


	The ridgepole sags to the breaking point.
	It furthers one to have somewhere to go.

The weight of the great is excessive. The load is too heavy for the strength of 
the supports. The ridgepole on which the whole roof rests, sags to the 
breaking point, because its supporting ends are too weak for the load they 
bear. It is an exceptional time and situation; therefore extraordinary measures 
are demanded. It is necessary to find a way of transition as quickly as possible, 
and to take action. This promises success. For although the strong element is 
in excess, it is in the middle, that is, at the center of gravity, so that a 
revolution is not to be feared. Nothing is to be achieved by forcible measures. 
The problem must be solved by gently penetration to the meaning of the 
situation (as is suggested by the attribute of the inner trigram, Sun); then the 
change-over to other conditions will be successful. It demands real 
superiority; therefore the time when the great preponderates is a momentous 


	The lake rises above the trees:
	Thus the superior man, when he stands alone,
	Is unconcerned,
	And if he has to renounce the world,
	He is undaunted.

Extraordinary times when the great preponderates are like flood times when 
the lake rises over the treetops. But such conditions are temporary. The two 
trigrams indicate the attitude proper to such exceptional times: the symbol of 
the trigram Sun is the tree, which stands firm even though it stands alone, 
and the attribute of Tui is joyousness, which remains undaunted even if it 
must renounce the world.


	Six at the beginning means:
	To spread white rushes underneath.
	No blame.

When a man wishes to undertake an enterprise in extraordinary times, he 
must be extraordinarily cautious, just as when setting a heavy thing down on 
the floor, one takes care to put rushes under it, so that nothing will break. 
This caution, though it may seem exaggerated, is not a mistake. Exceptional 
enterprises cannot succeed unless utmost caution is observed in their 
beginnings and in the laying of their foundations.

	° Nine in the second place means:
	A dry poplar sprouts at the root.
	An older man takes a young wife.
	Everything furthers.

Wood is near water; hence the image of an old poplar sprouting at the root. 
This means an extraordinary situation arises when an older man marries a 
young girl who suits him. Despite the unusualness of the situation, all goes 
  From the point of view of politics, the meaning is that in exceptional times 
one does well to join with the lowly, for this affords a possibility of renewal.
	Nine in the third place means:
	The ridgepole sags to the breaking point.
This indicates a type of man who in times of preponderance of the great 
insists on pushing ahead. He accepts no advice from others, and therefore 
they in turn are not willing to lend him support. Because of this the burden 
grows, until the structure of things bends or breaks. Plunging willfully ahead 
in times of danger only hastens the catastrophe.

	° Nine in the fourth place means:
	The ridgepole is braced. Good fortune.
	If there are ulterior motives, it is humiliating.

Through friendly relations with people of lower rank, a responsible man 
succeeds in becoming master of the situation. But if, instead of working for 
the rescue of the whole, he were to misuse his connections to obtain personal 
power and success, it would lead to humiliation.

	Nine in the fifth place means:
	A withered poplar puts forth flowers.
	An older woman takes a husband. 
	No blame. No praise.

A withered poplar that flowers exhausts its energies thereby and only hastens 
its end. An older woman may marry once more, but no renewal takes place. 
Everything remains barren. Thus, though all the amenities are observed, the 
net result is only the anomaly of the situation.
  Applied to politics, the metaphor means that if in times of insecurity we 
give up alliance with those below us and keep up only the relationships we 
have with people of higher rank, an unstable situation is created.

	Six at the top means:
	One must go through the water.
	It goes over one's head.
	Misfortune. No blame.

Here is a situation in which the unusual has reached a climax. One is 
courageous and wishes to accomplish one's task, no matter what happens. 
This leads into danger. The water rises over one's head. This is the 
misfortune. But one incurs no blame in giving up one's life that the good 
and the right may prevail. There are things that are more important than 

	29. Kan / The Abysmal (Water)


This hexagram consists of a doubling of the trigram K'an. It is one of the 
eight hexagrams in which doubling occurs. The trigram K'an means a 
plunging in. A yang line has plunged in between two yin lines and is closed 
in by them like water in a ravine. The trigram K'an is also the middle son. 
The Receptive has obtained the middle line of the Creative, and thus K'an 
develops. As an image it represents water, the water that comes from above 
and is in motion on earth in streams and rivers, giving rise to all life on 
  In man's world K'an represents the heart, the soul locked up within the 
body, the principle of light inclosed in the dark--that is, reason. The name of 
the hexagram, because the trigram is doubled, has the additional meaning, 
"repetition of danger." Thus the hexagram is intended to designate an 
objective situation to which one must become accustomed, not a subjective 
attitude. For danger due to a subjective attitude means either foolhardiness 
or guile. Hence too a ravine is used to symbolize danger; it is a situation in 
which a man is in the same pass as the water in a ravine, and, like the water, 
he can escape if he behaves correctly.


	The Abysmal repeated.
	If you are sincere, you have success in your heart,
	And whatever you do succeeds.

Through repetition of danger we grow accustomed to it. Water sets the 
example for the right conduct under such circumstances. It flows on and on, 
and merely fills up all the places through which it flows; it does not shrink 
from any dangerous spot nor from any plunge, and nothing can make it lose 
its own essential nature. It remains true to itself under all conditions. Thus 
likewise, if one is sincere when confronted with difficulties, the heart can 
penetrate the meaning of the situation. And once we have gained inner 
mastery of a problem, it will come about naturally that the action we take will 
succeed. In danger all that counts is really carrying out all that has to be done-
-thoroughness--and going forward, in order not to perish through tarrying in 
the danger.
  Properly used, danger can have an important meaning as a protective 
measure. Thus heaven has its perilous height protecting it against every 
attempt at invasion, and earth has its mountains and bodies of water, 
separating countries by their dangers. Thus also rulers make use of danger to 
protect themselves against attacks from without and against turmoil within.


	Water flows on uninterruptedly and reaches its foal:
	The image of the Abysmal repeated.
	Thus the superior man walks in lasting virtue
	And carries on the business of teaching.

Water reaches its goal by flowing continually. It fills up every depression 
before it flows on. The superior man follows its example; he is concerned 
that goodness should be an established attribute of character rather than an 
accidental and isolated occurrence. So likewise in teaching others everything 
depends on consistency, for it is only through repetition that the pupil makes 
the material his own.


	Six at the beginning means:
	Repetition of the Abysmal.
	In the abyss one falls into a pit.

By growing used to what is dangerous, a man can easily allow it to become 
part of him. He is familiar with it and grows used to evil. With this he has 
lost the right way, and misfortune is the natural result.

	° Nine in the second place means:
	The abyss is dangerous.
	One should strive to attain small things only.

When we are in danger we ought not to attempt to get out of it immediately, 
regardless of circumstances; at first we must content ourselves with not being 
overcome by it. We must calmly weigh the conditions of the time and by 
satisfied with small gains, because for the time being a great success cannot be 
attained. A spring flows only sparingly at first, and tarries for some time 
before it makes its way in to the open.

	Six in the third place means:
	Forward and backward, abyss on abyss.
	In danger like this, pause at first and wait,
	Otherwise you will fall into a pit in the abyss.
	Do not act this way.

Here every step, forward or backward, leads into danger. Escape is out of the 
question. Therefore we must not be misled into action, as a result of which 
we should only bog down deeper in the danger; disagreeable as it may be to 
remain in such a situation, we must wait until a way out shows itself.

	Six in the fourth place means:
	A jug of wine, a bowl of rice with it;
	Earthen vessels
	Simply handed in through the Window.
	There is certainly no blame in this.

In times of danger ceremonious forms are dropped. What matters most is 
sincerity. Although as a rule it is customary for an official to present certain 
introductory gifts and recommendations before he is appointed, here 
everything is simplified to the utmost. The gifts are insignificant, there is no 
one to sponsor him, he introduces himself; yet all this need not be 
humiliating if only there is the honest intention of mutual help in danger. 
Still another idea is suggested. The window is the place through which light 
enters the room. If in difficult times we want to enlighten someone, we must 
begin with that which is in itself lucid and proceed quite simply from that 
point on.

	° Nine in the fifth place means:
	The abyss is not filled to overflowing,
	It is filled only to the rim.
	No blame.

Danger comes because one is too ambitious. In order to flow out of a ravine, 
water does not rise higher than the lowest point of the rim. So likewise a 
man when in danger has only to proceed along the line of least resistance; 
thus he reaches the goal. Great labors cannot be accomplished in such times; it 
is enough to get out of the danger.

	Six at the top means:
	Bound with cords and ropes,
	Shut in between thorn-hedged prison walls:
	For three years one does not find the way.

A man who in the extremity of danger has lost the right way and is 
irremediably entangled in his sins has no prospect of escape. He is like a 
criminal who sits shackled behind thorn hedged prison walls.

	30. Li / The Clinging, Fire


This hexagram is another double sign. The trigram Li means "to cling to 
something," and also "brightness." A dark line clings to two light lines, one 
above and one below--the image of an empty space between two strong lines, 
whereby the two strong lines are made bright. The trigram represents the 
middle daughter. The Creative has incorporated the central line of the 
Receptive, and thus Li develops. As an image, it is fire. Fire has no definite 
form but clings to the burning object and thus is bright. As water pours down 
from heaven, so fire flames up from the earth. While K'an means the soul 
shut within the body, Li stands for nature in its radiance.


	THE CLINGING. Perseverance furthers.
	It brings success.
	Care of the cow brings good fortune.

What is dark clings to what is light and so enhances the brightness of the 
latter. A luminous thing giving out light must have within itself something 
that perseveres; otherwise it will in time burn itself out. Everything that gives 
light is dependent on something to which it clings, in order that it may 
continue to shine.
  Thus the sun and moon cling to heaven, and grain, grass, and trees cling to 
the earth. So too the twofold clarity of the dedicated man clings to what is 
right and thereby can shape the world. Human life on earth is conditioned 
and unfree, and when man recognizes this limitation and makes himself 
dependent upon the harmonious and beneficent forces of the cosmos, he 
achieves success. The cow is the symbol of extreme docility. By cultivating in 
himself an attitude of compliance and voluntary dependence, man acquires 
clarity without sharpness and finds his place in the world.


	That which is bright rises twice:
	The image of FIRE.
	Thus the great man, by perpetuating this brightness,
	Illumines the four quarters of the world.

Each of the two trigrams represents the sun in the course of a day. The two 
together represent the repeated movement of the sun, the function of light 
with respect to time. The great man continues the work of nature in the 
human world. Through the clarity of his nature he causes the light to spread 
farther and farther and to penetrate the nature of man ever more deeply. 
	Nine at the beginning means:
	The footprints run crisscross.
	If one is seriously intent, no blame.

It is early morning and work begins. The mind has been closed to the outside 
world in sleep; now its connections with the world begin again. The traces of 
one's impressions run crisscross. Activity and haste prevail. It is important 
then to preserve inner composure and not to allow oneself to be swept along 
by the bustle of life. If one is serious and composed, he can acquire the clarity 
of mind needed for coming to terms with the innumerable impressions that 
pour in. It is precisely at the beginning that serious concentration is 
important, because the beginning holds the seed of all that is to follow.

	° Six in the second place means:
	Yellow light. Supreme good fortune.

Midday has come; the sun shines with a yellow light. Yellow is the color of 
measure and mean. Yellow light is therefore a symbol of the highest culture 
and art, whose consummate harmony consists in holding to the mean.

	Nine in the third place means:
	In the light of the setting sun,
	Men either beat the pot and sing
	Or loudly bewail the approach of old age.

Here the end of the day has come. The light of the setting sun calls to mind 
the fact that life is transitory and conditional. Caught in this external 
bondage, men are usually robbed of their inner freedom as well. The sense of 
the transitoriness of life impels them to uninhibited revelry in order to enjoy 
life while it lasts, or else they yield to melancholy and spoil the precious time 
by lamenting the approach of old age. Both attitudes are wrong. To the 
superior man it makes no difference whether death comes early or late. He 
cultivates himself, awaits his allotted time, and in this way secures his fate.

	Nine in the fourth place means:
	Its coming is sudden;
	It flames up, dies down, is thrown away.

Clarity of mind has the same relation to life that fire has to wood. Fire clings 
to wood, but also consumes it. Clarity of mind is rooted in life but can also 
consume it. Everything depends upon how the clarity functions. Here the 
image used is that of a meteor or a straw fire. A man who is excitable and 
restless may rise quickly to prominence but produces no lasting effects. Thus 
matters end badly when a man spends himself too rapidly and consumes 
himself like a meteor.

	° Six in the fifth place means:
	Tears in floods, sighing and lamenting.
	Good fortune. 

Here the zenith of life has been reached. Were there no warning, one would 
at this point consume oneself like a flame. Instead, understanding the vanity 
of all things, one may put aside both hope and fear, and sigh and lament: if 
one is intent on retaining his clarity of mind, good fortune will come from 
this grief. For here we are dealing not with a passing mood, as in the nine in 
the third place, but with a real change of heart.	

	Nine at the top means:
	The king used him to march forth and chastise.
	Then it is best to kill the leaders
	And take captive the followers. No blame.

It is not the purpose of chastisement to impose punishment blindly but to 
create discipline. Evil must be cured at its roots. To eradicate evil in political 
life, it is best to kill the ringleaders and spare the followers. In educating 
oneself it is best to root out bad habits and tolerate those that are harmless. 
For asceticism that is too strict, like sentences of undue severity, fails in its